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In response to Senate resolution, February 15, report of Sheldon Jackson on education in Alaska.


March 4, 1886. -- Referred to the Committee on Territories and ordered to be printed.


Department of the Interior,

 Washington, March 3, 1886.

Sir: In response to Senate resolution of the 15th ultimo, I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of Sheldon Jackson on education in Alaska.

Very respectfully,


The President pro tempore of the Senate.




Office of General Agent of Education in Alaska,

Sitka, Alaska,

February 1, 1886.

Sir : In submitting my preliminary report as general agent of education in Alaska, I propose to take a brief survey of the country, its extent, physical characteristics, climate, and people. In no other way can a just estimate be formed of the peculiar difficulties under which the school work in Alaska must be conducted. In no other way can we be impressed with the peculiar needs of the field to which our system must be adapted in order to secure the highest success.

Section 13 of the organic act providing a civil government for Alaska declares (see Appendix B) --

That the Secretary of the Interior shall make needful and proper provision for the education of the children of school age in the Territory of Alaska, without reference to race, until such time as permanent provision shall be made for the same, and the sum of $25,000, or so much thereof as may be necessary, is hereby appropriated for this purpose.

This contemplates the establishment in Alaska of the public-school system of the States.

To inaugurate such a system in Dakota or Montana with the assistance of railways and stage lines is one thing ; to do the same thing in Alaska, with its vast area, not only without public conveyances, except a monthly steamer in the southeastern corner, but without roads and largely without any means of transportation save the uncomfortable log canoes and skin bidarkas of the natives, is another and quite different thing. And yet the establishment of schools in Alaska will require tens of thousands of miles of travel -- a fact which becomes obvious on a careful survey of the field.


Very few even of the more intelligent portion of American citizens comprehend its extent and physical characteristics.

To say that Alaska contains 580,107 square miles gives no adequate conception of its great size. That impression is better secured by a series of relative comparisons.

For instance, from extreme north to south is 1,400 miles in an air line, or as far as from Maine to Florida ; and from its eastern boundary to +he end of the Aleutian Islands is 2,200 miles in an air line, or as far as from Washington to California.

The island of Attu, at the end of the Aleutian chain, is as far west of San Francisco as Maine is east ; so that between the extreme eastern and western sections of the United States San Francisco is the great central city.

Or take another basis of comparison : Alaska is as large as all the Kew England and Middle States, together with Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan, Kentucky, and Tennessee combined, or as large as all the United States east of the Mississippi River and north of Georgia and the Carolinas, or nearly one sixth of the entire area of the United States. It has a coast line of 18,211 miles, or nearly twice as many as the Atlantic and Pacific coast lines of the remaining portion of the United States. Commencing at the north shore of Dixon Inlet, in latitude 54° 40', the coast sweeps in a long regular curve north and west to the entrance of Prince William Sound, a distance of 550 miles, thence 725 miles south and west to Unimak Pass, at the end of the Alaska Peninsula. From this pass the Aleutian chain of islands sweeps 1,075 miles in a long curve almost to Asia, the dividing line between Russia and the United States being the meridian of 193° west longitude. North of Unimak Pass the coast forms a zigzag line to Point Barrow, on the Arctic Ocean, and thence south of east to the boundary.


Alaska is a great island region, having off its southeastern coast a large archipelago. The 732 miles of latitude from Puget Sound to the head of Lynn Canal contain a remarkable stretch of inland ocean navigation, noted for its bold shores, deep water, numerous channels, innumerable bays and harbors, abundance of fuel and fresh water, and shelter from the swells of the ocean.

The southern portion of this great archipelago is in Washington Territory, the central portion in British Columbia, and the northern portion in Alaska. The portion in Alaska has been named the Alexander Archipelago. It is about 300 miles north and south and 80 miles wide, and is variously estimated to contain from 1,000 to 5,000 separate islands, 1,100 of which have been marked on the charts. The aggregate area of these islands is 14,142 square miles.

Six hundred miles to the westward is the Kadiak group, aggregating an area of 5,670 miles ; then the Shumagin group, containing 1,031 square miles ; and the Aleutian chain, with an area of 6,391 square miles. To the northward is the Pribiloff group (Seal Islands), containing, with the other islands in Bering Sea, 3,963 square miles.

The total area of the islands of Alaska is 31,205 square miles, which would make a State as large as the great State of Maine.


Alaska is the region of the highest mountain peaks in the United States. The Coast Range of California and the Rocky Mountain Range of Colorado and Montana unite to form the Alaskan Mountains. This range, instead of continuing northward to the Arctic Ocean, as the old atlases represent, turns to the southward, at the upper Ramparts of the Yukon, extends through and forms the Alaska Peninsula, and then gradually sinks into the Pacific Ocean, leaving only the highest peaks visible above the water. These peaks form the Aleutian chain of islands. The islands decrease in size, height, and frequency, as the mountain range sinks lower into the ocean. Unimak, the most eastern of the chain, has that magnificent volcano Shishaldin, 9,000 feet high ; then Unalashka, 5,091 feet; next Atka, 4,852 feet; then Kyska, 3,700 feet; and Attn, the most western of the group, only 3,084 feet high.

In the Alaskan Range are the highest peaks in the United States :

Mount Saint Elias, 19,500 feet high; Mount Cook, 16,000 feet; Mount Crillon, 15,900 ; Mount Fairweather, 15,500 ; and numerous others. In addition to the Alaskan Range are the Shaktolik and Uhikuk Hills, near Norton Sound; the Yukon and Roraantzoff Hills, north of the Yukon River ; the Kaiyuh and Nowikakat Mountains, east and south of the river, and a low range of hills bordering the Arctic coast.

Alaska contains the great volcanic system of the United States. Grewingk enumerates 61 volcanoes, mainly on the Alaskan Peninsula and Aleutian Islands, that have been active since the settlement by Europeans.


It is the great glacial region. From Bute Inlet to Unimak Pass nearly every deep gulch has its glacier, some of which are vastly greater and grander than any glacier of the Alps.

On Lynn Canal is a glacier computed to be 1,200 feet thick at the "snout "or lower projection. In one of the gulches of Mount Fairweather is a glacier that extends 50 miles to the sea, where it ends abruptly in a perpendicular ice wall 300 feet high and 8 miles broad. Thirty-five miles above Wrangell, on the Stikine River, between two mountains o,000 feet high, is an immense glacier 40 miles long and at the base 4 to 5 miles across, and variously estimated from 500 to 1,000 feet high or deep. On Glacier Bay, Muir Glacier presents a wall of ice 500 feet in thickness, with a varying breadth of from 3 to 10 miles, and an estimated length of 40 miles. Great blocks containing hundreds of tons of ice are constantly breaking off and falling into the sea.


Alaska abounds in hot and mineral springs. The large ones, a few miles south of Sitka, have long been noted for their curative qualities. In 1860 the Russian-American Company erected at them a hospital, which was much patronized. The buildings have, since the American occupation, been destroyed. Dall reports springs on Perenosna Bay, on Araagat Island, and Port Moller. On Unimak Island is a lake of sulphur. Near the volcano Pogrumnoi are hot marshes. Boiling springs are found on the islands Akhun, Atka, Unimak, Adakh, Sitiguak, and Kanaga. These latter have for ages been used by the natives for cooking food. In the crater of Goreloi is a vast boiling, steaming mineral spring 18 miles in circumference. A lake strongly impregnated with niter is found on Beaver Island. The thermal springs on the island of Unalashka hold sulphur in solution.


The Territory is famous for its beautiful auroral displays.


Alaska contains one of the largest rivers in the United States. The river Yukon is 70 miles wide across its five mouths and intervening deltas. At some points along its lower course one bank cannot be seen from the other. For the first 1,000 miles it is from 1 to 5 miles wide, and in some places, including islands, it is 20 miles from main bank to main bank. Navigable for 2,000 miles, it is computed to be from 2,000 to 3,000 miles long.* During 1883 Lieut. F. Schwatka, crossing from Lynn Canal in Southeastern Alaska to the headwaters of the Yukon River, made a raft voyage of exploration down the stream.

The other principal rivers of the Territory are the Stikine, 250 miles long ; the Chilkat ; the Copper (explored in 1885 by Lieutenant Allen) ; the Nushagak, a large, shallow stream 150 miles long; the Kuskokwim, between 500 and 600 miles long; the Tananah, 2 miles wide at its junction with the Yukon; the Porcupine; the Nowikakat, 112 miles; and the Koyoukuk. The last four are tributaries of the Yukon.

Then we find the Nuuatok emptying into Hotham Inlet, Kotzebue Sound. During 1885 Engineer McLenegan, of the Revenue Marine steamship Corwin, ascended this river in a canoe 400 miles and found it flowing through grand scenery, some of the canons being for miles through precipitous rocks 1,000 feet high ; the Koowak, or Putnam River, also flowing to Hotham Inlet. This stream was first visited by Lieut. George M. Stoney in 1883. In 1884 he ascended the river over 400 miles; the Colville, for a longtime supposed to be the outlet of the Yukon ; and the Meade, explored by Lieut. P. H. Ray in the spring of 1883.

The latter two rivers discharge into the Arctic Ocean.


In a country as extended as Alaska, with its large rolling plains, wide valleys, and high mountains, there is necessarily a wide diversity of climate. In a general way it may be said that inland Alaska has an Arctic winter and a tropical summer. At Fort Yukon the thermometer often rises above 100° in summer, and indicates from 50° to 70° below zero in winter. At Nulato, on the Yukon River, the fall of snow during the winter averages 8 feet and frequently reaches 12 feet. Along the immense southern coast and islands the climate is moist and warm.

The greatest cold recorded on the island of Unalashka, by a Greek priest, during a period of five years, was zero of Fahrenheit ; extreme heat for the same time was 77°. The average for five years, at 7 a. m., was 37°; 1 p. m., 4U°; and 9 p. m., 36°. The average of weather for seven years was 53 all clear days, 1,263 half clear, and 1,235 all cloudy. It is very much the climate of Northwestern Scotland.

At Saint Paul Harbor, Kadiak Island, the mean annual summer temperature is 54° and winter 29° ; the coldest month^ February, with the thermometer at 27°; and the warmest, July and August, with a mean temperature of 57°, the extremes being 6° and 75°. The climate is that of Southern Sweden and Norway. The annual rainfall is about 73 inches.

At Sitka, where, with the exception of a few short gaps, a record of the thermometer has been kept for forty-five years, it has been found that the mean spring temperature was 41.2°; summer, 54.6°; autumn, 44.9°; winter, 32.5° ; and for the entire year, 43.3°.

* Mr. Robert Campbell, for many years a factor of the Hudson Bay Fur Company, in a letter to Hon. M. C. Butler, United States Senate, represents the Yukon and its tributary Pelly as navigable at certain seasons nearly 3,000 miles. Mr. Campbell says: " In the spring of 1840, I crossed the mountains and came on the headwaters of a magnificent stream, which I named the Pelly River. In 1850 I received per- mission to explore the Pelly down to its mouth, in due time reaching Fort Yukon, setting the question at rest that the Pelly and Yukon were one and the same river. Three kinds of salmon ascend the river as far as Pelly Banks, which is about 3,000 miles from the sea-coast. When in full freshet flow in summer, steamers could ascend to within 30 miles of Pelly Banks."

The greatest degree of heat recorded in these forty-five years was 87.8°, and of cold 4° below zero. The thermometer has recorded below zero during only four of the forty-five years, and above 80° during only seven of those years. The mean annual temperature for forty-five years has ranged from 41.3° to 46.8°, a difference of but 5.5°. The annual rainfall was 81 inches. During a period of forty-three years there has been an average of 200 rainy or snowy days a year, the most favorable year being 1883, with 82 rainy and 32 snowy days, and the most un- favorable 185G, with 258 rainy and 27 snowy clays.

From these facts, taken from the Alaska Coast Pilot, Appendix 1, Meteorology, A. D. 1880, the surprising fact is brought to light that the winter climate of Southeastern Alaska for forty-five years past has been the average winter climate of Kentucky and West Virginia, and the average summer climate of Minnesota. During the past year, closing- August 31, 1885, at Sitka, the signal officer reports that there were "94 clear days, 95 fair, 206 cloudy, and 220 rainy or melting snow." Coldest day December 1, 1884, at 14.6°, and warmest day May 6, 1885, at 79.5°.

This mild climate of Southern Alaska is due to the warm Japan cur- rent of the Pacific, the KuroSiwo, which first strikes the American continent at the Queen Charlotte Islands, in latitude 59 north. Here the stream divides, one portion going northward and westward along the coast of Alaska, and the other southward along the coast of British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and California, giving them their mild winter climate.

The former stream flowing northward has been named the "Alaska current," and gives the great southern coast of Alaska a winter climate as mild as that of one-third of the United States.

The physical configuration of Alaska naturally divides it into three districts: the Yukon, extending from the Alaskan range of mountains to the Arctic Ocean ; the Aleutian, embracing the Alaska Peninsula west of the one hundred and fifty-fifth degree of longitude and the Aleutian Islands; and the Sitkan, including Southeastern Alaska.

Concerning the Yukon district but little is known except of the coast and along the Yukon River.

The Coast Pilot, a publication of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, represents the country between Norton Sound and the Arctic Ocean as a "vast moorland, whose level is only interrupted by promontories and isolated mountains, with numerous lakes, bogs, and peat beds. Wherever drainage exists, the ground is covered with a luxuriant herbage and produces the rarest as well as the most beautiful plants. The aspect of some of these spots is very gay. Many flowers are large, their colors bright, and though white and yellow predominate, other tints are not uncommon. Summer sets in most rapidly in May, and the landscape is quickly overspread with a lively green."

The extreme heat and constant sunshine cause it to produce rank vegetation. The commercial value of this section is mainly in its furs. During the past three seasons small parties of prospectors have penetrated into that region in search of gold.

The Aleutian district is largely mountainous and of volcanic formation. Between the mountains and the sea are, however, many natural prairies, with a rich soil of vegetable mold and clay, covered with perennial wild grasses.

This district, except at the eastern end, is without timber larger than a shrub. The principal resource at present is in the wonderful fisheries off its coast.

The Sitkan district is mountainous in the extreme, and the larger portion covered with dense forest. The great wealth of this district is in its lumber, fish, and minerals. Many garden vegetables are raised with success. In this district is situated the mining camp of Juneau, -where the now famous Treadwell mine is yielding from $50,000 to $75,000 in gold bullion per month.

With regard to Alaska, Mr. William H. Dall, of the Smithsonian Institution, writes, after a trip to Europe:

I come back convinced, from personal inspection, that Alaska is a far better country than much of Great Britain and Norway, or even part of Prussia.


Scattered over this vast north land, in clusters of small settlements, is a small population composed approximately of 17,617 Innuit, or Eskimo, 2,145 Aleuts, 1,756 Creoles,* 5,100 Tinneh, 6,437 Thlingets, 788 Hydah, and 2,000 whites, making a total of 35,843.


And this native population, with perhaps the exception of the Tinneh, is not Indian. Because many of them are uncivilized, popular opinion, without giving the matter due consideration, has frequently classed them as Indians. This is a mistake. The United States district court for Alaska has affirmed that they are not Indians -- that they can sue and be sued, make contracts, go and come at pleasure, and do whatever any other person can do lawfully.

Hon. A. P. Swineford, governor of Alaska, in his annual report to the Secretary of the Interior (1885), says:

The native Alaskans, as a rule, are industrious and provident, living in permanent and substantial homes, and all are self-sustaining. These people, it should he under- stood, are not Indians. Their appearance, habits, language, complexion, and even their anatomy, mark. them as a race wholly different and distinct from the Indian tribes inhabiting other portions of the United States. They are far superior intellectually, if not in physical development, to the Indian of the plains; are industrious, more or less skillful workers in woods and metals ; and that they are shrewd, sharp traders, all who have had dealings with them will, I think, be willing to testify. They yield readily to civilizing influences, and can, with much less care than has been bestowed upon native tribes elsewhere, be educated up to the standard of good and intelligent citizenship. Just in proportion to their educational progress they should have the rights and privileges conferred and the duties and penalties of full citizenship imposed upon them. (See Appendix, Paper F.)

As long ago as March 14, 1872, the Hon. F. A. Walker, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, in an official communication to the Secretary of the Interior concerning these people, says:

For myself, I have never believed that the natives of Alaska were Indians within the meaning of the Constitution any more than are Esquimaux or Kanakas, and I am disposed to avoid entirely the use of the word "Indian" as applied to them. The balance of probabilities seems to me to incline toward an Asiatic origin, at least so far as the inhabitants of the coast and the islands are concerned. The inference from their geographical position, strong as it may be, is hardly so strong as the inference from their singular mimetic gifts and the high degree of mechanical dexterity which they are capable of attaining. These are qualities characteristic of the Oriental, and they are precisely the qualities in which the North American Indian is most deficient. But without attempting to establish their connection with the Chinese or Japanese, or to trace their descent from the lost tribes, it is sufficient for the purposes of this report if it be shown that the Department is not concluded by any irresistible sequence to treat the natives of Alaska as Indians within the intention of the law organizing the Indian Office.

*Descendants of Russian fathers and native mothers. So called in the United States census report for 1830.

That it is undesirable to do so appears to be plain. The provision of the Constitution excluding Indians from the political body is so far invidious and opposed to the general spirit of that instrument, and more especially to the spirit of the recent amendments thereto, that it should he construed strictly, not extending unnecessarily to races of a questionable ethnical type and occupying a position practically distinct and apart from the range of the undoubted Indian tribes of the continent. (Report of Board of Indian Commissioners, l872, p. 134.)

The Government has never treated them as Indians, and it would be a national calamity at this late day to subject them to the restrictions and disabilities of our Indian system. Among those best known their highest ambition is to build American homes, possess American furniture, dress in American clothes, adopt the American style of living, and be American citizens. They ask no special favors from the American Government, no annuities or help, but simply to be treated as other citizens, protected by the laws and courts, and in common with all others furnished with schools for their children.


The Innuit.

The Innuit occupy almost the entire coast line of Alaska with the out-lying islands, from the boundary line westward along the Arctic coast . to Bering Strait; thence southward to the Alaska Peninsula, over the peninsula and the Aleutian Islands, and eastward and northward along the coast to Mount Saint Elias, with the exception of a small territory on Cook's Inlet and at the month of Copper River, where the Tinneh from the interior have forced their way to the coast. Occupying the coast line, they are bold navigators and skilled fishermen and sea hunters.

The term "Innuit" is the native word for "people" and is the name used by themselves, signifying "our people." The terra "Eskimo" is one of reproach given them by their neighbors, meaning "raw-fish eaters." The Innuit of Alaska are a much finer race physically than their brethren of Greenland and Labrador. They are tall and muscular, many of them being 6 feet and over in height. They have small black eyes, high cheek bones, large mouths, thick lips, coarse brown hair, and fresh yellow complexion. In many instances the men have full beards and moustaches. In some families the men wear a labret under each corner of the mouth in a hole cut through the lower lip for the purpose.

They are a good-natured people, always smiling when spoken to. They are fond of dancing, running, jumping, and all athletic sports. While they speak a common language from the Arctic to the Pacific, each locality has its different dialect.

Their usual dress is the parkas, made of the skins of animals and sometimes of the breasts of birds. However, where they have access to the stores of traders they buy ready-made clothing.

Their residences have the outward appearance of a circular mound of earth covered with grass, with a small opening at the top for the escape of smoke. The entrance is a small door and narrow hallway to the main room, which is from 12 to 20 feet in diameter and is without light or ventilation.

*The account of the people and their villages in Western Alaska is largely drawn from Petroff's Report of Population of Alaska, United States census of 1880.

Their diet consists of the wild meat of the moose, reindeer, bear, and smaller fur-bearing animals; also of fish, the white whale, the walrus, seal, and various water-fowl. ]n the northern section they have a great aversion to salt. While they will eat with great relish decayed fish or putrid oil, they will spit out with a wry face a mouthful of choice corned beef.

Men, women, and children are alike inveterate smokers.

While they travel continually in the summer, they have permanent winter homes.

Their religious belief is quite indefinite. In a general way they believe in a power that rewards the good and punishes the bad, by sending them to different places after death. They are savages, and, with the exception of those in Southern Alaska, have not had civilizing, educational, or religious advantages.

From the boundary line to Bering Strait, along the bleak Arctic coast, villages are placed here and there, wherever there is a sheltered harbor with good hunting or fishing. The population of these aggregates 3,000.

At the mouth of the Colville River they hold an annual fair, to which they come from hundreds of miles.

At Point Barrow, the extreme northern point of land in the United States, and within 25 miles of being the northernmost land on the continent, there is a village (Nuwuk) of 31 families and 150 people. They inhabit houses or tupecs that are built partly under ground for warmth.. The upper portion is roofed over with dirt, supported by rafters of whale jaws and ribs.

Around Kotzebue Sound are a number of villages. Some of the hills surrounding this sound rise to the height of a thousand feet, and are covered with a species of wild cotton, that in its season gives the appearance of snow.

Into this sound empty the Nunatok and Koowak Rivers, both large streams. This is one of the places where the people come in July from all sections of the country for the purpose of trade and barter. The Innuit of the coast bring their oil, walrus hides, and seal skins; the Tinneh from the interior their furs ; and the Chuckchees from Asia their reindeer-skins, fire-arms, and whisky.

It is to these gatherings that the traders come in schooners fitted out at San Francisco or Sandwich Islands with cargoes of whisky labeled "Florida water," "Bay rum," "Pain-killer," "Jamaica ginger," &c. The finest furs of Alaska are obtained at these fairs. Salmon are plentiful in Kotzebue Sound.

Another center of villages is at Cape Prince of Wales. This is a rocky point, rising in its highest peak to an elevation of 2,500 feet above the sea. At the extremity of this cape is a village of 400 people, the westernmost village on the mainland in America. These people are great traders and travelers, skilled in hunting the whale on the seas or the reindeer on the land. They are insolent and overbearing toward the surrounding tribes, and, traveling in large companies, compel trade at their own terms. They are reported the worst natives on the coast.

In the narrow strait separating Asia from America is a small group of islands called the Diomede. On these islands are three hundred Innuit.

These, with those at Cape Prince of Wales, are the great smugglers of the north. Launching their walrus-skin boats (bidarkas) they boldly cross to and fro from Siberia, trading the deer-skins, sinew, and wooden-ware of Alaska for the walrus, ivory, skins of tame reindeer, and whale blubber of Siberia, also fire-arms and whisky.

On King's Island, south of Cape Prince of Wales, are the cave dwellers of the present. The island is a great mass of basalt rock, with almost perpendicular sides, rising out of the ocean to the height of 700 feet. On one side, where the rock rises at an angle of 45 degrees, the Innuit have excavated homes in the rock. Some of these rock houses are 200 feet above the ocean. There are 40 of these cliff dwellings.

When the surf is wildly breaking on the rocks, if it becomes necessary for any one to put out to sea, he gets as near the surf as possible, takes his seat in his boat (kyack), and at the opportune moment two companions toss him and his boat over and clear of the surf. They are noted for the manufacture of water-proof boots from the skiu of the throat of the seal. They are lighter, more enduring, and greatly preferred to rubber.

Directly south of Bering Strait is the large island of Saint Lawrence. Formerly it had a population of 800. They were the largest and finest formed people of the Innuit race, but slaves to whisky.

In the summer of 1878 they bartered their furs, ivory, and whalebone to the traders for rum, and as long as the rum lasted they spent their summer in idleness and drunkenness instead of preparing for winter. The result was that over 400 of them starved to death the next winter. In some villages not a single man, woman, or child was left to tell the horrible tale.

From Bering Strait around the shores of Norton Sound are a number of villages, aggregating a population of 633.

In this district is Saint Michael, a trading post, originally founded by the Russians in 1835. The place consists of a few log houses, inclosed by a stockade, the property of the Alaska Commercial Company, and a chapel of the Russo Greek Church, with an occasional service by a priest from Ikogmute. This is the point where the ocean-going steamers transfer freight with the small steamers that ply on the Yukon River. To this point the furs collected at the trading posts in the interior, some of them 2,000 miles distant, are brought for reshipment to San Francisco. This is also the dividing line between the Innuit of the Arctic and the Pacific. Half a mile from the trading post is a native village of 30 houses and one dance-house, or town hall.

We come now to the region of the densest population in Alaska, attracted and sustained by the abundance of fish that ascend the mighty Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers and the many smaller streams.

Their fish diet is supplemented by the wonderful bird life of the country. The variety and numbers of wild geese and ducks is said to be greater than in any other section of the known world. To fish and fowl is added the flesh of the moose and reindeer.

On the delta of the Yukon and southward to the mouth of the Kuskokwim River are from 40 to 50 villages, with a population of 2,000. From the mouth of the Yukon to Anvik are 15 or 10 villages, with 1,345 people; while on the Kuskokwim River are some 40 villages, aggregating a population of 3,054.

On the lower banks of this river the high land, free from tidal overflow, is so fully occupied with houses that it is difficult for the traveler to find space to pitch a tent.

In the adjacent Bristol Bay region are 34 villages and 4,340 people. A short portage across the Alaska Peninsula brings us to the settlements of the civilized Innuit.

In 1784, Gregory Shelikoff formed a settlement on Kadiak Island and commenced the subjugation and civilization of the people. Soon after he organized a school, which was the first in Alaska. Also the first church building in Alaska was erected on this island. For a long time it was the Russian capital, the chief seat of their power and operations. The present village of Kadiak (Saint Paul) numbers 288 people, living in 101 frame houses. They have a few cattle, and cultivate small gardens. They have a large church and a resident priest ; also stores of the Alaska Commercial Company, a deputy collector of customs, and a signal weather office. A small school is kept at the expense of the Alaska Commercial Company.

Opposite Kadiak is Wood Island, with 157 people. They have 4 horses and 20 cattle. The village also possesses a small ship-yard, and a road around the island 12 or 14 miles long. This and a road 6 miles long at Sitka are the only roads in that vast Territory. The place possesses the usual Russo Greek church, but no school.

Near by is Spruce Island, where a Russian monk kept a small school for 30 consecutive years, giving instruction in the rudimental arts and agricultural industries. The school is now discontinued for want of a teacher.

Near by are the two villages of Afognak, with a population of 339. These reside in 32 good frame and log buildings, and cultivate 100 acres in potatoes and turnips. They have a large church, and ought to have a school.

On the western side of Kadiak is Karluk, with 302 people, having a church but no school.

On the southeastern coast is Old Harbor. with 160, Orlova with 147, and Katmai with 218 people. Each of these villages possesses a church, but no school.

In the Kadiak district are 3,128 civilized Innuit, or Eskimo, and Creoles, and 34 whites.

The Inuuit and Creoles are a well-to-do, industrious population, living in frame houses provided with the simpler furnishings of civilization, and on Sabbath and festal occasions the men dress in broadcloth suits and calf-skin boots, the women in calico and silk dresses modeled after the fashion plates received from San Francisco. They are an orderly, law-abiding people.

Aleuts and Creoles.

From the Innuit we pass to the consideration of the Aleuts. The origin of the word "Aleut" is not known. Their own designation of themselves is "Unung-un," the native word for "our people."

They occupy the Aleutian chain of islands and portions of the Alaska Peninsula, from the Shumagin Islands 1,050 miles westward to Attn.

The average height of the men is about 5 feet 6 inches. They have coarse black hair, small black eyes, high cheek-bones, flat noses, thick lips, large mouths, broad faces, and light yellowish-brown complexions, with a strong resemblance to the Japanese.

The marriage relation is respected, and as a rule each family has its own house with from two to three rooms. They use in their houses a small cast-iron cook-stove or neat wrought-iron cooking range, granite-ware kettles, white crockery-ware dishes, pewter or silver-plated ware, and feather beds covered with colored spreads. Their walls are adorned with colored pictures and their houses lighted with kerosene in glass lamps. Nearly every home possesses an accordion, a hand- organ, or music-box, some of the latter costing as high as $200. They dress in American garments, and their women study with great interest the fashion plates and try to imitate the latest styles.

Large numbers of them can read, an Aleutian alphabet and grammar having been provided for them by Veniaminoff. They are all members of the Russo-Greek Church and outwardly very religious. They ask a blessing at their meals, greet strangers and friends with a blessing for their health, and bid them adieu with a benediction.

The Hon. William S. Dodge, ex-mayor of Sitka, says of them :

Many among them are highly educated, even among the classics. The administrator of the fur company often reposed great confidence in them. One of their best physicians was an Aleutian. Their best traders and accountants were Aleutians.

This, of course, was more particularly true of the past, when the Russian government gave them educational advantages.

The great industry of the country is the hunting of the sea-otter. From this source some of the villagers derive a revenue that, if economically used, would make them wealthy, averaging from $600 to $1,200 a family. But their extra income is spent for kvass (quass), a homemade intoxicating beer.

Commencing at the westward on the island of Attn is 1 white man and 106 Aleuts and Creoles. They are very poor. The village consists of 18 houses (barrabaras) and a frame chapel with thatched roof, but no school. This is the westernmost settlement in the United States, and is as far west of San Francisco as the State of Maine is east.

The next settlement eastward is Nazan on Atka Island, with a population of 2 white men and 234 Aleuts and Creoles. They have 42 houses and a church, but no school. They are wealthy, using freely at their table the groceries and canned fruits of civilization. They excel in the manufacture of baskets, mats, &c., out of grass.

At Nikolski on Umnak Island are 2 white men and 125 Aleuts and Creoles. They are well-to-do financially, having 16 houses and a church, but no school.

The next settled island is Unalashka, with a rocky, rugged, jagged coast. In the small bays are a number of villages, the principal one being Unalashka (Iliuliuk).

This village has a population of 14 white men and 392 Aleuts and Creoles. They have a church, priest's residence, the stores, residences, warehouses, and wharves of the Alaska Commercial Company, 18 frame residences, and 50 barrabaras. One-half the population can read the Aleutian language. It is the most important .settlement in Western Alaska, and the commercial center of nil the trade now in that region or that shall develop in the future. It is the natural outfitting station for vessels passing between the Pacific and Arctic Oceans.

From a cave at the southern end of this island were taken 11 mummies for the Smithsonian Institution.

Two hundred and twenty-two miles north of Unalashka are the celebrated Pribiloff, or, as they are more popularly called. Seal Islands.

The village of Saint Paul, on an island of the same name, is laid out in regular streets like an American village, and has 64 houses, together with a large church, a school house, and a priest's residence. The population is 13 white men, 2 white women, and 284 Aleuts.

Twenty-seven miles to the southeast is the companion island of Saint George, with 4 white men and 88 Aleuts. They have a church and school. These islands are leased by the United States Government to the Alaska Commercial Company at an annual rental of $55,000. By the terms of the lease the company is allowed to take 100,000 seal-skins each year, upon which they pay the Government a royalty of $262,500.

The revenue of these islands since 1870 has returned to the Government more than half the sum paid to Russia for the whole country.

From these two islands come nearly all the seal-skins of commerce. There is a small school on each island supported at the expense of the company. (See Appendix G.)

The native population are encouraged to deposit their surplus earnings in a savings bank.

U\ the immediate vicinity of Unalashka, on the island of Spirkin, is Borka, with 1 white man and 139 Aleuts and Creoles. This village is noted for its cleanliness. With their white scrubbed and neatly-sanded floors, their clear, clean windows, neat bedding, tidy rooms, and abundance of wild-flower bouquets on tables and window sills, they may properly be called the Hollanders of Alaska.

To the eastward, near the southern end of the Alaska Peninsula, is Belkoffski, with a population of 9 white men, 2 white women, and 257 Aleuts and Creoles. In addition to the buildings of the great trading firms, the village has 30 frame houses and 27 barrabaras.

In 1880 they raised among themselves $7,000 for the erection of a new church. One-half of them can read and write in the Aleutian language, and they support a small school. Their revenue from the sale of sea-otter skins amounts to about $100,000 a year, or $373 for every man, woman, and child in the village.

On the island of Unga, one of the Shumagin group, is a settlement of 15 white men and 170 natives. As, by a regulation of the United States Treasury Department, only natives are allowed to hunt the sea-otter, these white men have married native women, and thereby become natives in the eye of the law. The revenue of the sea-otter trade in this village averages about $600 a year to each family. Oft the south coast of the Shumagin Islands are the famous cod banks of Alaska, from which are taken from 500,000 to 600,000 fish annually.

In the Aleutian district are 1,890 Aleuts and 479 Creoles.


"Tinneh" is the native word for "people." The Tinneh of Alaska are tall, well formed, strong, and courageous, with great powers of endurance. They are great hunters and fishers. They consider it a disgrace, an unfair advantage over a black bear to shoot him, but boldly attack him with a knife in a square open fight. Polygamy prevails among them, the men frequently having more than one, but seldom more than three wives. Wives are taken and discarded at pleasure. Among some of them female infanticide is prevalent. The bodies of the dead are buried in boxes above ground. Shamanism and witchcraft, with all their attendant barbarities, prevail. They also believe in a multitude of spirits, good and bad.

On the lower course of the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers, and in the great range of country north and south bordering on the Innuit of the coast, are the western Tinneh, the Ingaliks of the Russians, numbering in 3 bands about 1,800.

From the junction of the Yukon and the Tananah Rivers, westward to the British line, from the Innuit on the Arctic shore almost to Lynn Canal on the south, is the home of the Kutchin families. They number, with the Ah-tena on Copper River, about 3,300. Some of these people have been taught to read by the missionaries of the Church Missionary Society of England. (See Appendix H.)

Around the shores of Cook's Inlet are the Kenai, numbering 813 souls. They have largely been brought under the influence of the Russo-Greek Church and become civilized. They live in substantial and well-built houses with spruce-bark roofs. They have churches, but no schools.


The Thlinget, composed of 10 clans, occupy the islands of the Alexander Archipelago and coasts adjacent. They number 6,437.

Intimately associated with these are 788 Hydah, occupying the southern end of Prince of Wales Island.

The Thlinget are a hardy, self-reliant, industrious, self supporting, well to do, warlike, superstitious race, whose very name is a terror to the civilized Aleuts to the west as well as to the savage Tinneh to the north of them.


Occupying the extreme northern section of Lynn Canal and the valleys of the Chilkat and Chilkoot Rivers is the Chilkat tribe, numbering 988. They are great traders, being the "middle-men" of their region, carrying the goods of commerce to the interior and exchanging them for furs, which are brought to the coast, and in turn exchanged for more merchandise. Their country is on the highway of the gold-seekers to the interior.

In the summer of 1880, a trading post having been established among them, I arranged for a school to be taught by the wife of the trader, Mrs. Sarah Dickinson, an educated native.

In 1881 I accompanied Rev. Eugene S. Willard and family, who commenced a mission among them.

In 1882 Miss Bessie M. Mathews, of Monmouth, Ill., was sent out to take charge of a boarding department, which was opened in 1883. The station is called Haines, and has a post-office. Thirty miles up the Chilkat River, for a time, a school was taught by Louis and Tillie Paul, native teachers.


One hundred miles southward are the Hoonah, occupying both sides of Cross Sound, and numbering 908. In 1881 I erected a school-house and teacher's residence at their principal village, on Chichagoff Island, and placed Mr. and Mrs. Walter B. Styles, of New York City, in charge. In 1882 they were transferred to Sitka. In 1884 Rev. and Mrs. John W. McFarland were sent from Wrangell to Hoonah, and are now in charge of the school.


A few miles to the eastward, on the Admiralty Island, are the Auke, numbering 640. In their region valuable gold mines have been opened and an American mining village established at Juneau. A summer school was taught by Mrs. W. H. R. Corlies during 1882 and 1883.


A few miles to the south, on the mainland, is the Taku tribe, numbering 209. A summer school was held among them in 1880 by Rev. and Mrs. W. H. R. Corlies, of Philadelphia. In 1882, pressed by the importunities of the leading men of the tribe, he took up his abode among them, and erected school and residence buildings at Tsek-nuk-sank-y.


On the Southwestern side of Admiralty* Island are the Hoochinoo, numbering 666. This tribe has for several years been asking for a teacher. This place has been selected for one of the Government schools.


To the south, on Kuiu and Kupreanoff Islands, are the Kake, numbering 568.


Eastward, around the mouth and lower course of the Stikine River, are the Stikine. They number 317. Their principal village is at Fort Wrangell, on an island of the same name. At this point in the tall of 1877 I located Mrs. A. R. McFarland. In 1878 Rev. S. Hall Young, of West Virginia, was sent out. The same season a boarding department for girls was established by Mrs. A. R. McFarland. In 1879 Miss Maggie A. Dunbar, of Steubenville, Ohio, was added to the teaching force. The same year the erection of a suitable building was commenced, which was finished and occupied the following year. Also the same year Rev. W. H. R. Corlies and family arrived from Philadelphia. Mrs. Corlies opened a school on the beach for visiting natives, and her husband a night school for adults. He also served as missionary physician to the place.

In 1882 Rev. John W. McFarland and Miss Kate A. Rankin were added to the missionary force. In the fall of 1884 the Girls' Home was removed to Sitka, together with Mrs. A. R. McFarland and Miss Rankin. Mr. J. W. McFarland and his wife (nee Dunbar) were sent to Hoonah.


Two hundred miles south of Fort Wrangell are the Tongass, numbering 273. Some of them cross over to British Columbia, and find school privileges at Port Simpson, a station of the Wesleyan Methodist Church of Canada. In 1884 a school was established among them, with Louis and Tillie Paul as teachers.


West of the Tongass, on the southern half of Prince of Wales Island, are the Hydah, numbering 788. They are a large, well formed, and handsome race, with light complexion, and have long been noted for their bravery and ferocity in war. Terrorizing all the neighboring tribes, they were known as the " Bulldogs" of the north Pacific. They have not even hesitated to attack and plunder English and American vessels. In 1854 they held the captain and crew of an American vessel in captivity until ransomed by the Hudson Bay Fur Company. Their villages are remarkable for the number of totem sticks. These are carved logs from 1 to 2 feet in diameter, and from 20 to 60 feet high. Some of them contain hollow cavities, in which are placed the ashes of cremated dead chiefs; others are heraldic and represent the family totem or orders. In some cases a large oval opening through one of these sticks forms the entrance to the house ; in others the pole is at one side of the entrance. The house is a large, low, plank building from 40 to 50 feet square, with a fire-place in the center of the floor, and a large opening in the roof for the escape of the smoke. Some of them have inserted windows and doors in their buildings. and procured bedsteads, tables, stoves, dishes, and other appliances of civilized life.

Their food consists largely of fish, dried or fresh, according to the season. Their country also abounds with wild berries and deer. The berries are preserved in fish-oil for winter use. Their coast also abounds with good clams. They raise large quantities of potatoes.

The Hydah are noted for their skill in carving wood, bone, gold, silver, and stone. The finest of the great cedar canoes of the northwest coast are manufactured by them. They practice polygamy and hold slaves. The husband buys his wife, frequently while a mere girl, from her parents. If she does not suit she can be returned and the price refunded. Chastity is uncommon. They are inveterate gamblers.

Like the other heathen tribes on that coast, they live in perpetual fear of evil spirits, and give large sums to the conjurors and medicine men, who, by their incantations, are supposed to secure immunity from the evil influences of the spirits. In sickness their main reliance is upon the incantations of their medicine men, and death is ascribed to the evil influence of an enemy or witchcraft, and whoever is suspected of exerting that influence is killed. The dead are usually burned, and the ashes placed in a small box and deposited in a house or totem stick. An election to chieftainship is purchased by a " potlatch," or giving away of presents of goods and money. These are common to the native tribes on the Pacific coast from Puget Sound to Alaska.

An ambitious young man will work hard for years and save his earnings, that he may make a pot-latch. If unable to accumulate a sufficient sum of himself, his relatives will add to his collection. When the time arrives the people are invited for hundreds of miles around. It is a season of dancing and other festivities, during which the entire accumulation of years is given away and the giver impoverished. He, however, secures position and renown, and soon recovers in the gifts of others more than he gave away.

The customs of the Hydah are largely the customs of all the Thlinget tribes.

On the 22d of August, 1881, I established a mission among them at the village of Howcan, placing Mr. James E. Chapman in charge as a teacher. The station was called Jackson by the missionaries. In the spring of 1882 Rev. J. Loomis Gould and family, of West Virginia, were sent to the Hydah. The same year some ladies in Brooklyn, N. Y., provided a saw-mill for the station ; and in the fall of that year Miss Clara A. Gould was added to the teaching force at Jackson.


In the northern portion of Prince of Wales Island are the Hanegah, numbering 587. The establishment of a school among them is under consideration.


To the north, on the western coast of Baranoff, are the Sitkas, numbering 721. Their chief village is at Sitka, the old capital of the Russian possessions in America. It was their political, commercial, religious, and educational center. As early as 1805 a school was opened at Sitka. It held a very precarious existence, however, until 1820, when It came under the charge of a naval officer, who kept a good school for thirteen years. In 1833 this school came under the direction of Etolin, who still further increased its efficiency. Etolin was a Creole, who by force of ability and merit raised himself to the highest position in the country, that of chief director of the fur company and governor of the colony. He was a Lutheran, the patron of schools and churches. While governor he erected a Protestant church at Sitka, and presented it with a small pipe organ, which is still in use.

In 1840, besides the colonial school at Sitka, was one for orphan boys and sons of workmen and subaltern employees of the fur company, in which were taught reading, writing, arithmetic, grammar, mechanical trades, and religion. The most proficient of the pupils at the age of seventeen were advanced to the colonial school and prepared for the navy or priesthood. The number of boarders was limited to fifty. The school was in charge of Lieutenant Commander Prince Maxutoff, assistant governor of the colony. In 1847 the attendance was 52 ; in 1849, 39; and in 1861, 27.

in 1839 a girls' school of a similar character was established and the number of boarders limited to 40. The course of study comprised the Russian language, reading, writing, arithmetic, household work, sewing, and religion. In 1848 the school numbered 32 ; in 1849, 39 ; and in 1861, 26.

In 1841 a theological school was established at Sitka, which, in 1849, was advanced to the grade of a seminary. In 1848 it reported 30 boarders, 12 day pupils, and 12 Creoles being educated in Russia. Of those in Russia two were in training for pilots, one as merchant, one gunsmith, one fur dealer, one tailor, and one cobbler. In 1849 the attendance was reported 28, with 11 others in Russia.

In 1859 and 1860 the common schools at Sitka were remodeled in order to secure greater efficiency. The course of study consisted of Russian-Slavonian, and English languages, arithmetic, history, geography, bookkeeping, geometry, trigonometry, navigation, astronomy, and religion. A knowledge of Russian, reading and writing, and the four rules of arithmetic was required for admission.

A pupil tailing to pass examination two years in succession was dropped. The course extended over five years. Extra compensation was allowed teachers who secured the best results. The faculty consisted of a principal, who was a graduate of the School of Commercial Navigation ; a free pilot, who taught navigation ; an employee of the company, who taught book keeping and commercial branches; one priest and two licentiates, graduates of the University of St. Petersburg.

The corresponding schools for girls were in charge of a lady graduate of one of the highest female schools in Russia, with two male teachers.

This made five schools at Sitka -- two for the children of the lower class, two for the higher class, and one seminary.

About the time of the transfer of the country the teachers were recalled to Russia and the schools suspended.

But with the change of Government came a new people. The majority of the Russians left the country, and their places were taken by Americans. Many came in from California, and on the 8th of November, 1867, less than a month from the time that the country passed under the United States flag, the citizens called a meeting and formed a temporary local government. And on the 18th of December, 1867, a petition signed by forty-nine persons, two of whom " made their mark," was presented to the common council asking that a citizens' meeting might be called to empower the council to establish a school. (See Appendix J.) On the 20th of March, 1868, the council adopted some school regulations and appointed three trustees, who exercised a joint control with a committee of officers from the military post at Sitka. During the winter of 1868-'69 a school building was purchased. The annual reports of the trustees have disappeared, and there is nothing to show the time when teaching commenced. In October, 1869, the council voted that the salary of the teacher should be $75 per month in coin, and on March 1, 1871, it was ordered to be $25 per month, which evidently means that at the latter period the post commander withdrew the $50 per month which had been paid from army funds. On the 12th of August, 1871, permission was given the bishop of the Greek Church to teach the Russian language one hour each day in the public school. During 1873 the school seems to have died out.

In 1879 and 1880 another attempt was made to establish a school, which was taught by Mr. Alonzo E. Austin and Miss Etta Austin.

In the winter of 1877 and 1878 I secured the appointment of Rev. John G. Brady for Sitka, and in April, 1878, a school was opened by Mr. Brady and Miss Fannie E. Kellogg. In December, through a combination of circumstances, it was discontinued. In the spring of 1880 Miss Olinda Austin was sent out from New York City, and commenced school April 5, in one of the rooms of the guard-house, with l00 children present. This number increased to 130. Then some of the parents applied for admission, but could not be received, as the room would not accommodate any more.

Miss Austin received the support and substantial assistance of Captain Beardslee, then in command of the U. S. S. Jamestown, who proved himself a warm friend of the enterprise.

In July the school was moved to the old hospital building.

In November some of the boys applied to the teacher for permission to live in the school-house. At home, they alleged, there was so much drinking, talking, and carousing that they could not study. The teacher replied that she had no accommodations, bedding, or food for them. But they were so much in earnest that they said they would provide for themselves. Upon receiving permission, seven native boys, thirteen and fourteen years of age, bringing a blanket each, voluntarily left their homes and took up their abode in a vacant room of one of the Government buildings. Thus commenced the boarding department of the Sitka school. Soon other boys joined them. Capt. Henry Glass, who succeeded Captain Beardslee in command of the U. S. S, Jamestown, from the first, with his officers, especially Lieut. F. M. Symonds, U. S. N., took a deep interest in the school. As he had opportunity he secured boys from distant tribes and placed them in the institution, until there were 27 boys in the boarding department.

In February, 1881, Captain Glass established a rule compelling the attendance of the native children upon the day school, which was a move in the right direction and worked admirably. He first caused the native village to be cleaned up, ditches dug around each house for drainage, and the houses whitewashed. These sanitary regulations greatly lessened the sickness and death rate among them. He ordered the houses to be numbered and an accurate census taken of the inmates, adults and children. He then caused a number of labels to be made of tin, one of which was tied around the neck of each child, with his or her number and the number of the house on it, so that if a child was found on the street during school hours, the native policeman was under orders to take the number on the label and report it, or the teacher each day would report that such and such numbers from such houses were absent that day. The following morning the head man of the house to which the absentee belonged was summoned to appear and answer for the child. If the child was willfully absent, the head man was fined or imprisoned. A few cases of fine proved sufficient. As soon as the people found the captain in earnest the children were all in school. This ran the average attendance up to 230 and 250, the attendance one day reaching, with adults, 271, In April of that year Mr. Alonzo E. Austin was associated with his daughter in the school and Mrs. Austin appointed matron. In the winter of 1882 the school-house was burned, and the boys took refuge in an abandoned Government stable, which was fitted up for them. In the fall of 1882, after consultation with the collector of customs, the commander of the United States man-of-war, and the leading citizens, I selected a new location for the school outside of village limits and erected a two-and-a-half story building 100 by 50 feet in size. In 1884 the Girls' Boarding School at Fort Wrangell was removed to Sitka, and the united schools made a Government contract industrial and training school. The same season a second large building, 130 by 50 feet, was erected for the use of the school, and in March, 1885, there were 42 boys and 61 girls under training in this school. (See Appendix M.)


On the 2d day of March, 1885, the honorable the Secretary of the Interior assigned the work of making provision for the education of the children in Alaska to the Bureau of Education. (See Appendix C.)

It was a work of great magnitude, in a new and untried field, and with unknown difficulties. It was a work so unlike any other that the experience of the past in other Departments could not be the sole guide. It was a problem peculiar to itself, and must be worked out by and for itself It covered an area of one-sixth of the United States. The schools to be established would be from 4,000 to 6,000 miles from headquarters at Washington, and from 100 to 1,000 miles from one another. And that in an inaccessible country, only one small corner of which has any public means of intercommunication. The teachers of five schools in Southeastern Alaska would be able to receive a monthly mail; the larger number of the others could only receive a chance mail two or three times a year, and still others only one annually.

It was to establish English schools among a people the larger portion of whom do not speak or understand the English language, the difficulties of which will be better appreciated if you conceive of an attempt being made to instruct the children of New York or Georgia in arithmetic, geography, and other common-school branches through the medium of Chinese teachers and text-books. Of the 36,000 people in Alaska, not over 2,000 speak the English tongue, and they are mainly in three settlements. It was to instruct a people, the greater portion of whom are uncivilized, who need to be taught sanitary regulations, the laws of health, improvement of dwellings, better methods of housekeeping, cooking, and dressing, more remunerative forms of labor, honesty, chastity, the sacredness of the marriage relation, and everything that elevates man. So that, side by side with the usual school drill in leading, writing, and arithmetic, there is need of instruction for the girls in housekeeping, cooking, and gardening, in cutting, sewing, and mending; and for the boys in carpentering and other forms of wood working, boot and shoe making, and the various trades of civilization.

It was to furnish educational advantages to a people, large classes of whom are too ignorant to appreciate them, and who require some form of pressure to oblige them to keep their children in school regularly. It was a system of schools among a people, who, while in the main only partially civilized, yet have a future before them as American citizens.

It was the establishment of schools in a region where not only the school-house but also the teacher's residence must be erected, and where a portion of the material must be transported from 1,500 to 4,500 miles, necessitating a corresponding increase in the school expenditure.

It was the finding of properly qualified teachers, who, for a moderate salary, would be willing to exile themselves from all society, and some of them settle down in regions of arctic winters where they can hear from the outside world only once a year.

To the magnitude of the work, and the special difficulties environing it, is still further added the complication arising from the lack of sufficient funds to carry it on, there being appropriated only 825,000 with which to commence it.


From the nature and extent of the work it was at once apparent that it could not be efficiently carried on from the office at Washington alone, but required in addition an agent familiar with the country, and who should spend his summers on the field, determining the location of new schools, inspecting existing ones, and arranging with regard to buildings, supplies, and teachers.

Consequently on the 11th of April, 1885, the Secretary of the Interior directed the establishment of the office of "General Agent of Education in Alaska." (See Appendix D.)

This action met with the hearty indorsement of the leading educators of the United States, who for several years past have manifested an interest in the establishment of public schools in Alaska. (See Appendix E.)


In Southeastern Alaska the establishment of schools, in comparison with the difficulties met in other sections of this land, was easy, as four of the seven schools can be reached monthly by the mail steamer. Further, schools had been kept at all these points but two, for several years by teachers in the employ of the Board of Home Missions of the Presbyterian Church. This missionary organization was the first of the American churches to enter that neglected land. Finding no schools, they established them side by side with their missions, proposing to furnish educational advantages until the General Government should be ready to do it. Therefore last fall, wherever the Government was ready to undertake the work in any village occupied by the Presbyterians, they turned over their schools to the Government. As the Presbyterians had a body of efficient teachers already on the ground, acclimated, experienced in the work, more or less acquainted with the native language, and possessing the confidence of the people, it was both more economical to the Government and for the best interests of the schools that they should as far as possible be re-employed, which was done.

Special requests having been received for an early inauguration of the public-school system in Sitka and Juneau, I gave them my first attention.


At Sitka I met with considerable annoyance and opposition from some of the late officials stationed there. For reasons best known to themselves, those officers directly or indirectly threw their official influence in opposition to the school and mission work. This commenced while I was superintendent of the industrial school at Sitka, and was continued after I resigned that position and accepted the Government agency. This opposition culminated on the 19th of August, 1885, at which date I went aboard the monthly mail steamer with school desks and furniture for the Government school at Wrangell, and with charts, maps, &c., for the schools at Hoonah, Haines, Juneau, Wrangell, and Jackson ; also with the papers and instructions necessary to set them in operation early in September. 1 was also expecting to visit Killisnoo and see what arrangements could be made for a school there. Just as the gang-plank was to be drawn in before leaving I was arrested by Deputy Marshal Sullivan, and with unnecessary rudeness hustled off the steamer. After the arrest I was locked up in a cell until the steamer was out of reach, when I was taken before the judge, arrangements were made for increasing my bonds to $3,200, and I was set free. As we have only one mail steamer a month they accomplished their purpose in detaining me at Sitka. Last spring District Attorney Haskett, through false representations to the grand jury, succeeded in securing four indictments against me for building fences and making other improvements for the training school, on Government land it is true, but land which had been set apart for the school by Congress. The four indictments were for different stages of one and the same offense. If the alleged acts had really been committed the penalty is from $25 to $500. The bail was placed at the extreme limit, $500 for each case, accepted by the judge, and the trial set for the November term.

At the time of the sailing of the steamer Mr. Haskett secured from Judge McAllister a warrant for my arrest, requiring me to appear before the court and increase the amount of my bonds. This could have been done in ten minutes and I have been allowed to go about my official duties. Although it was well known that I intended leaving on the steamer, the warrant was not issued until 9 o'clock a. m. on the day the steamer sailed. Even then the serving of it was held back until 3 p. m., the hour the steamer sailed. The warrant required me to be taken before the judge "forthwith," instead of which I was locked up in a cell. The. feeling of indignation against both Mr. Haskett and Judge McAllister over this last official outrage was very great. Russians, natives, and Americans alike condemned it in unmeasured terms. This was the end of their official power to hinder the school work, as the next mail steamer brought the news of their removal from office and the appointment of others in their stead, who are manifesting a very marked interest in the schools. The new district attorney, Col. M. D. Ball, gave early attention to the indictments against me. Finding that the matter on which the four indictments for obstructing a road were based was not, under the laws of Oregon, a criminal offense, nor an indictable offense, but at most a misdemeanor, cognizable before a justice of the peace, and also finding that the obstruction in the one case was purely technical and in the others an alteration of the road which came within the spirit of the law, he moved, at a meeting of the United States district court, October 5, 1885, that the cases be dismissed, which was done. The affair has attracted so much attention that I inclose the record of the court.

*(See Appendix K.)

Previous to his removal from  office, United States District Attorney Haskett, by means of persistent misrepresentations and the matter-of- course manner in which many persons sign petitions, secured a number of signatures to a petition asking for my removal.

But after the officials who were active in the matter were removed from office by the President, causing the special pressure on the community to cease, there was a reaction in public sentiment.

Two prominent citizens who had signed the petition for my removal afterward offered to go on my bonds, and others apologized, explaining that at the time they did not know what it was they signed. These troubles and the misrepresentations preceding therein created more or less prejudice against the general agent for the past summer. The prejudice is rapidly disappearing, and has in no way impaired the efficiency of the public schools.

The parents and the children are not brought into personal relations with the agent, but with the teachers. If the teachers are personally popular and efficient, then the schools will prosper and win their way.

That the schools have prospered will be seen by the detailed report of their monthly attendance.

To Sitka, the chief seat of the troubles, teachers were sent from the East.


By permission of the collector of the port, who is the custodian of the Government buildings. I took possession of a log house in the center of the village and repaired it as best I could under the circumstances. In this building a school was opened on June 22, 1885, with Miss Margaret Powell as teacher. Miss Powell is a trained teacher from Western Pennsylvania and a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Attendance : June, 17 ; July, 31 ; August, 22 ; September, 22 ; October, 26; November, 34; December, 31; and January, 43.

A few weeks after the arrival of the new officials Governor Swineford called a meeting of the Alaskans to urge upon them the importance and duty of placing all their children in school. They were also addressed in the same strain by Colonel Ball, by the genera) agent, and by Revs. Messrs. Willard and Austin. The effect of these addresses was such that upon consultation with the other officials, and at their request, it seemed wise to add a second department to the school at Sitka, which was done on the 16th of November, with Miss Kate A. Rankin, of Western Pennsylvania, as teacher, and 77 pupils in attendance.

Juneau. This village, 166 miles by water northeast of Sitka, is so far the principal mining center of Alaska, and has the largest American population of any place in the Territory. At this place a log carpenter-shop was rented and fixed up for a school-room.

School opened on the 1st of June, with Miss Marion B. Murphy, of Oregon, as teacher. She reported an attendance for June of 75, of whom 3 were Americans, 10 Creoles, and 62 natives ; July, 46; August, 30; September, 34; October, 37; November, 90; December, 76; and January, 67.

* Since the report was written a sworn statement of the unfriendly attitude of the court has been received from Prof. A. J. Davis. (See Appendix L.) + The distance is reckoned by the usual route traveled.

Miss Murphy is a member of the Roman Catholic Church.

As the weather grew colder and more stormy in the fall, it was found necessary to make still further repairs in the school-room.

Looking forward to the erection of a suitable building in the near future, I selected a block of land, with the concurrence of the United States commissioner, and had a cheap fence thrown around it, in order to secure it for school purposes.

Juneau is one of the eight post-offices now in Alaska.


At Hoonah, 130* miles by water north from Sitka, the fall term of the school opened on Tuesday, September 1, 1885, with 34 pupils. No later report has been received. The teacher is Mrs. Maggie Dunbar McFarland, wife of the missionary at that place.

They are the only white persons in that section of the country. The attendance during the preceding winter (1884-'85) was 69 boys, 76 girls, and 74 adults ; total, 219.

This school is among a people who, while residing in their principal village during the winter, in summer move out to their fishing camps, some of them 100 miles away. During last summer Mr. and Mrs. McFarland followed their people in a canoe, holding a temporary school in the larger places. This admirable and self-denying work kept fresh in the minds of the children the teaching they had already received.

Hoonah is about 60 miles from a post-office, so that the teachers receive their mail by chance canoes at irregular intervals during the summer, and in the winter not at all.

Fort Wrangell.

Three hundred and thirty-three miles f southeast of Sitka is Fort Wrangell. Here a school was opened on the 1st day of September, with 33 pupils. Miss Lydia McAvoy, teacher (from West Virginia), reports the attendance for the month at 41, of whom 28 were boys, 9 girls, and 4 adults, composed of the following nationalities : 1 American, 1 Creole, 1 French, 3 Norwegian, 8 half-breeds, and 27 Alaskans. The attendance for October was 53 ; November, 70 ; December, 69 ; and January, 65.


Haines is 200 miles by water north of Sitka. Here the school occupies the Mission building, and is more comfortably situated than any other public school in Alaska. The teacher. Miss Sarah M. Dickinson, is an intelligent half-breed girl, educated at the (government training school at Forest Grove, Oreg., and afterwards at Saint Mary's Hall, an Episcopal school for young ladies, at Portland, Oreg. This school at present is about 100 miles from a post-office, and has no regular communication with the outside world during the long winter months. Attendance for September, 40; October, 77; November, 68; December, 81; and January, 84.

* The distance is reckoned by the usual route traveled. + Steamship route via Juneau.


This village is 533* miles by water south of Sitka. The winter school opened on the first Tuesday in September. Attendance, September, 59; October, 72; December, 87; and January, 77. The teacher. Miss Clara A. Gould, of West Virginia, resides with her brother, who is the missionary there. There is a post-office at this place, and a monthly mail is brought from Fort Wrangell, about 200 miles, in a canoe, a trip which takes from five to fifteen days each way, according to the weather.

* Via Juneau and Fort Wrangell.


Killisnoo, distant 75 miles by water from Sitka, is the present center of the fish-oil trade of Alaska, and in the neighborhood of extensive coal fields and some valuable gold mines.

It also has a post-office. Arrangements are being made to open a school at this point in January, 1886.+

+This school was opened in February by Prof. George B. Johnston, of Western Pennsylvania.


As there are no public means of intercommunication with Western Alaska, instructions were issued by the honorable the Secretary of the Navy for the U. S. S. Pinta, stationed in Alaska waters, to convey the governor and general agent of education to the leading villages in that section. When Governor Swineford, after his appointment, reached Alaska it was too late in the season for the proposed trip. On this account I was unable to establish several schools that had been authorized by you. However, arrangements are in progress that will secure the opening of these schools in the early summer of 1886.

Notwithstanding my own inability to reach this western portion of Alaska, in September 1 made an attempt to send a teacher to Kadiak, 633 miles distant by water. A suitable man was found in Mr. Salomon Ripinsky, a Russian Hebrew, who had received a liberal European education and was recommended by a former superintendent of public instruction for the State of Oregon. He was so anxious to go that he was willing to take the risks of the trip in a small 10-ton sail boat. Being loaded with desks and other school supplies, the vessel sailed from Sitka on the 7th of September. On September 10, in latitude 57° 45' N., and longitude 137° W., the vessel sprung a leak in a storm. She was headed for land, and with great difficulty kept afloat. Mr. Ripinsky and the captain (the sole occupants) worked at the pumps day and night for life, until the vessel was finally driven through the breakers into Lisianski Strait and beached. Pumping the water out and repairing vessel as best they could, they again launched her with the purpose of trying to make Killisnoo. In the storm at sea while the waves were rolling over the. deck they had lost much of their provisions, which were washed overboard, and they were reduced to great straits by hunger. As the vessel continued to leak, they were compelled to work at the pumps. To add to their danger they were in unknown waters among strange rocks and in danger of being dashed to pieces. Finally, after sixteen days of battling with the elements and hanging between life and death, they reached Killisnoo and were safe.


After unloading and storing the school supplies, Mr. Ripinsky hired a canoe with a crew of natives, and returned to Sitka. The day after his return the steamship Bonita reached Sitka en route to Unalashka and Bering Sea.

Availing myself of the opportunity, I changed the destination of Mr. Ripinsky, with his own approval, and sent him to Unalashka, 1,278 miles from Sitka.

A small supply of desks, books, slates, &c., were furnished from the Sitka school. In a hasty note, returned by the steamer that conveyed him to his destination, he reports opening school with 45 pupils, 20 boys and 25 girls. No further news can be expected from him for the next seven months,* as his post-office is San Francisco, 2,418 miles away. At that office his mail will continue to accumulate until next spring, when some trading vessel going to Unalashka will take it to him, and returning will bring down his communications to the outside world. His acquaintance with the Russian tongue will be of great assistance to him in that place, where many understand the Russian and but very few the English language.

* Since this report was made the U. S. Revenue Marine steamer Rush made a special trip to Bering Sea in search of a missing; whaler and brought back reports from Unalashka as late as February 1, l886. School attendance for October, 45; November, 44; December, 44; and January, 44.


As previously stated, communication with interior Alaska is very difficult. If I wish to visit the school on the Yukon River, my nearest way is to take the mail steamer from Sitka to Juneau, 166 miles, then hire a canoe and natives to take me, together with blankets and provisions, to the head of Dyya Inlet, about 100 miles. Then leaving the water, a fresh crew of natives is hired to carry my supplies 25 miles on foot, over a dangerous mountain trail, to the upper waters of the Yukon, then construct a raft and float down the stream 1,500 miles to Nulato, or 1,750 miles to Anvik. The trip would occupy two mouths. Another practicable way is to take the mail steamer to San Francisco, 1,600 miles, then a chance steamer to Saint Michaels, 3,204 miles, then a small river steamer that makes one trip a year to Nulato, 769 miles, a total distance of 5,63^3 miles. To make the trip and return in the same year would require close connections.

If I wish to visit the school at Bethel, I take a mail steamer from Sitka to San Francisco, 1,600 miles, then wait until some vessel sails for Unalashka, 2,418 miles, then wait again until some trading vessel has occasion to visit the mouth of the Kuskokwim River, 461 miles, and go from thence in a bidarka (sea-lion-skin canoe) 150 miles up the river, a total of 4,629 miles. By the same tedious route the teachers receive their annual mail, except that it starts from San Francisco.


For years the Church Missionary Society of England has had stations at Fort McPherson and La Pierre House, bordering on Northeastern Alaska, and their missionaries have made occasional trips on the Upper Yukon and its tributaries. (See Appendix H.)


Among the capable and energetic young men in its employ. Rev. Vincent O. Sims has manifested so much interest in the people, such endurance of hardship, and such adaptation to the work, that application was made to the Board of Missions of the Protestant Episcopal Church to secure him as teacher of a Government school on the Yukon River. The society has responded favorably, and selected as teachers Mr. Sims* and Mr. Kirby, a young-man born in that region, the son of Archdeacon W. W. Kirby, an English missionary. Their final appointment is dependent upon their being released from their present engagements by the Church Missionary Society of England.

* Since this report was written news has been received of the death of Mr. Sims. Rev. Octavius Parker, an Episcopal clergyman in Oregon, has been selected to take his place. He will be stationed at Saint Michaels.


During the summer of 1884 the American branch of the Moravian Church sent a commission, consisting of Rev. A. Hartman and Mr. William H. Weinland, to visit the western section of Alaska in search of a suitable location for a mission to the Eskimo. (See Appendix I.)

They left San Francisco May 3, 1884, reaching the mouth of the Kuskokwim River, 4,479 miles, on the l2th of June. Leaving the steamer and hiring two three holed bidarkas (sea-lion-skin canoes), with four natives to manage them, they ascended the river to Napaimute 300 miles, visiting every village by the way. On the 9th of July they commenced their return to Fort Alexander, (300 miles distant, which they reached August 8, having been eight weeks m the uncomfortable boat. From Fort Alexander they returned to Unalashka by schooner, and from thence to San Francisco by steamer. The result of their exploration was the locating of a mission station 150 miles up the Kuskokwim River, near the native village of Mumtrekhlagamute. The new station was named Bethel. Last winter was spent by the Moravians in raising the funds to commence the mission. It was found necessary to have a special boat made for use on the river, also to purchase in San Francisco the lumber, sashes, doors, hardware, furniture. &c., for the mission buildings, to lay in a year's supply of provisions, medicines, and other necessaries, and charter a schooner to take the supplies to the month of the river. On the 18th day of May, 1885, the party, consisting of Rev. William H. Weinland and Rev. J. H. Killbuck (Delaware Indian), and their wives, with Mr. John Torgerson, mechanic and lay assistant, sailed from San Francisco, reaching the mouth of the Kuskokwim on the 19th of June. They at once set about the transporting of the building materials and supplies to Bethel in their small boat. Reports have been received from them as late as August 12, at which time they were still busy in bringing up material.

On the 10th of August the mission met with a great loss in the accidental drowning of Mr. Torgeson, who, passing aft on the deck of their little boat; slipped and fell into the river. Ropes and planks were immediately thrown to him, but, being heavily clothed, the swift current swept him under.

Rev. W. H. Weinland has been appointed teacher of the Government school, but as they have communication with the outside world only once a year, no reports can be expected from him before the fall of 1886.

He has also been commissioned by the Government to establish and maintain a Signal Service station at that point.


A contract has been entered into with the Moravians for the establishment of a school at Fort Alexander. The teachers selected are Mr. and Mrs. F. E. Wolff and Miss B. Bradley, M. D. The buildings are to be erected this coming summer and the school commenced in 1887.


On the 1st of May, 1870, Congress leased for twenty years to the Alaska Commercial Company the islands of Saint Paul and Saint George in Bering Sea. By the terms of the lease the company is bound to maintain a school on each island for eight months in each year.

Through the courtesy of the United States Treasury Department, we are able to give full educational reports from those islands. (See Appendix G.) From these reports it will be seen that earnest efforts are being made to educate and civilize the natives; that school attendance is obligatory, and 98 per cent, of the children of school age are reported in attendance.


Into all these schools, with the exception of those on the Pribiloff Islands, which are not under control of this Bureau, industrial exercises are being introduced as rapidly as possible. Arrangements are already provided by which the girls on two afternoons of each week shall be instructed in sewing and kitchen work, and plans are under way for a similar training of boys in the use of tools. This is but a beginning. As the purpose of the school is to develop an intelligent and useful citizenship, they will need more and more to extend their industrial facilities. As the people make progress, catch the spirit of civilization, and come under the influences which emanate from the schools, they gradually begin to give up their old methods of living and adopt the American. This is especially the case among the native and semi-civilized population. One by one they saw out an opening in the window-less walls of their houses and insert sash and glass. One after another purchases a cook stove. No longer content to eat off the floor out of a common iron pot, tables and dishes, knives and forks are procured. Then comes a bedstead, and the bedding is taken from the floor. Warm, comfortable store clothes take the place of the inconvenient, uncomfortable blanket. Thus slowly and gradually through the influence of the schools the population is raised in the scale of civilization. But all this creates a necessity for a larger income and more remunerative employments. The income that was sufficient when the family ate off the ground without dishes, cooked over a fire without a chimney, and slept on the floor under skins of wild beasts, is not sufficient to purchase cook stoves, dishes, tables, chairs, bedsteads, &c. Therefore to create the want without enabling them to supply it, is only to make them more miserable.

As instruction necessarily creates new wants, and is so intended by the Government, it is but proper that instruction should go farther and so train the hand that the newly created wants can be supplied. Or, in other words, the work of the Alaska school system is not only to teach reading, writing, and arithmetic, but also how to live better, how to make more money in order to live better, and how to utilize the re- sources of the country in order to make more money.

The special resources of Alaska, in addition to her fur-bearing animals, are her vast supply of fish and minerals, and in the southeastern section, great forests. There will also in the southeastern section be more and more the production of garden vegetables and the smaller fruits. Therefore, her schools should eventually teach the best methods of extracting stumps, grading and ditching land and preparing it for cultivation, the vegetables best adapted to the country and the best method of cultivating them, the berries and fruits best adapted to the climate, and bow they should be treated, tree planting and grafting, the development of the native fruits, also cattle, hog, and poultry raising, and butter and cheese making in regions along the warm southern coast.

The rising young men of Alaska should be taught the cutting and rafting of logs, the running of saw-mills, carpentering, coopering, furniture making, and all kinds of wood-working. To this they will take readily and naturally, for they and their fathers before them have been noted for their skill in certain mechanical arts, the manufacture of canoes, and carving wood, stone, and metal with their rude, native tools.

As fish is another of the commercial commodities of the country, and one which will furnish its inhabitants with an ample and reliable means of support, the boys should be instructed in the names, habits, and commercial value of the various kinds of fish found in their waters, improved methods of taking and preparing them for market, the making and mending of nets, the management and repair of boats, rope-splicing and sail-making, swimming, and naval drill, with some instruction in the tides and in the use of the compass. They should also be taught how to treat accidents, such as gunshot wounds and drowning.

The girls should be familiarized with the use of kitchen utensils and exercised in the best methods of cooking meats, fish, and vegetables, the preparation of corned, smoked, and pickled meats and fish, the drying and preserving of berries and care of winter vegetables, making yeast and baking bread, the care of milk with butter and cheese making, the proper care of storeroom and pantry, the setting, waiting upon, and clearing off" tables, orderly arrangement of furniture and simple adorning of walls, cleaning and care of lamps, cutting and making of clothes, changing, mending, and patching of garments, knitting and darning of socks, practice on the sewing-machine, washing and ironing, making of lye, soft soap, starch, &c.


The training of the schools should be extended to the heart as well as mind and hand. In sections of Alaska the uncivilized natives are accustomed to herd in large houses, with several families occupying the same room and cooking around a common fire. Among some of these families polygamy prevails, and sometimes, not often, a woman is found with two or more husbands. The children grow up amid filth and uncleanliness, accustomed to impure sights and conversation, and systematically taught to lie and steal. To them there is no wrong or disgrace in it. It is only disgraceful in being caught, as that seems to be a reflection on their skill ; they should have been smarter. Nephews inherit their uncle's wives and his property as well, so that many a boy is married to a toothless old aunt. In these same homes are taught, and sometimes even yet practiced, the horrible cruelties of witchcraft.

In some of the schools nearly all of the children come from such abodes ; and the teacher that would be true to his mission and accomplish the most good must give prominence to moral as well as intellectual instruction. He must try to educate them out of and away from the training of their home-life. They need to be taught that both the law of God and the law of the land forbid more than one man and one woman living together as husband and wife, that each family should have a separate home, however small, that lying, stealing, and impurity of speech and behavior are alike offenses against God and man, and that these vices are not only destructive to society but a disgrace to themselves. The education demanded in Alaska is the moral, intellectual, and physical training of the people at one and the same time-- the gradual uplifting of the whole man. All of this may not be attainable at once, or even ultimately in every one of the schools. But a beginning can be made in all of them, and the brightest and most promising children can be advanced into the larger training schools, where they can be taught trades and prepared to earn a competent support.

One such higher school is in existence at Sitka, and it is proposed to establish a second at Unalashka, 1,278 miles farther west.


The schools of Alaska are established, with but two or three exceptions, among a half-civilized people. It has long been known in educational circles that the greater the ignorance and the lower the condition of parents, the less they appreciate the importance of education for their children, and the greater the need of outside pressure to oblige them to send their children regularly to school. It is of no use to establish schools if the children do not attend, and many will not attend unless it is made obligatory on them. This is true of many in enlightened communities and much more so in uncivilized ones. If Congress wisely provides school facilities for the children of Alaska, it should go farther and make their attendance at those schools obligatory, for in no other way can the best results of the appropriation be secured, and in no other way can the highest interests of the children themselves be sub-served. Such laws have been enacted in the States of California, Connecticut, Illinois, Kansas, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Wisconsin; also in the Territories of Arizona, Dakota, New Mexico, Washington, and Wyoming; also in the District of Columbia. In foreign lands compulsory-attendance laws exist, in England, Scotland, France, Germany, Austria, Hungary, Italy, Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland, Roumelia, and Japan. These laws have not only increased the attendance upon the schools, but also greatly increased the prosperity and welfare of the states enforcing them.

Alaska, without a territorial legislature to enact laws, appeals directly to Congress for a judicious law making attendance upon the Government schools obligatory.


On account of the small appropriation made for the commencement of schools in Alaska, it was not deemed wise to attempt much in the way of building. As a consequence, not a single Government school in Alaska owns the building it occupies, and, with but two exceptions, not a single school has a comfortable building adapted to its necessities.

The present Congress should be asked to so enlarge its appropriation for education that suitable buildings can be erected this coming season at Sitka, Wrangell, Juneau, Killisnoo, Klawack, Kadiak, Unalashka, Belkofski, and Unga.


As is well known to the Department, there is no public way of reaching the settlements of Alaska west of Sitka. It was expected last summer that transportation would be furnished by the U. S. S. Pinta. Circumstances prevented her expected cruise. Arrangements for the trip this coming summer should be more definitely fixed, and provision made not only for the general agent, but also for such teachers, together with their families and supplies, as may be sent. If satisfactory arrangements cannot be made with the Navy Department, then I would recommend the charter of a suitable schooner with auxiliary steam power. As it is at present, of the fourteen places where schools exist or are soon to be established, only four can be reached by the monthly mail steamer. If a monthly, or even a quarterly, mail line could be established between Sitka and Unalashka, then five additional schools could be reached with regularity.


The extension of the mail line to Unalashka would also greatly assist in furnishing the several schools with requisite supplies. So far, on account of difficulty of transportation, but limited supplies have been attempted. Those sent to Haines were carried 200 miles in a frail log canoe not over 2-1/2 feet wide and 2 feet deep ; those to Hoonah, 130 miles, and those to Jackson, 200 miles, also by canoes. The attempt to send to Kadiak, 633 miles, in a small schooner, resulted in disaster and great danger to life.

Four of the schools can receive no further supplies until next summer.

Owing to the distance and expense of transporting school seats from the States (2,000 to 3,000 miles), by direction of the Department I gave the contract for making desks and blackboards to the superintendent of the training-school at Sitka, Alaska. The Government receives a good, substantial desk, the school is encouraged by securing funds for the purchase of additional tools and machinery, and the boys are stimulated by the thought that they are not playing work, but really accomplishing something.


In accordance with the instructions of the Department only those of the higher grade of certificates have been employed as permanent teachers. In some instances teachers of less skill have been employed temporarily until others can be procured.

In a few places, where they can have a home in a private family, it will be proper to employ unmarried ladies; but in the larger number of places the teacher should be a married man and accompanied by his wife. Especially is this the case in the native villages, where the school aims to lift the whole community out of their old methods into those of civilization. In such communities a well-ordered household is an object lesson of great power.


The circumstances of a teacher separated from all others for twelve months, among a half-civilized people using a foreign tongue, are so peculiar that it is not strange that they find a want not fully supplied by the training of the best normal schools, nor would it be strange they became greatly depressed in their work.

I consider it, therefore, of great importance to hold a two weeks' institute, that an opportunity be given them of assembling once a year to cheer one another, compare views, discuss methods, and glean from the experience of those similarly situated with themselves. The reasons which make teachers' institutes so essential and useful in the older sections of the country operate here with greatly added power. During the long summer vacation some of the teachers in Southeastern Alaska, at least, can be assembled at an institute, and I would recommend that a small sum for expenses be allowed out of the school appropriation.


As some of the great missionary organizations of the United States have commenced work in this vast Territory, and others are preparing to do so, it has been deemed wise to arrange with them for co-operation in the work of establishing schools. Where the teacher and the missionary and their families are the only white people in a large section of country -- the only representatives of the civilization of the States and dependent upon one another for assistance in times of sickness, for encouragement, and for society in their isolation -- it is simple common sense to believe that the more congenial they are, and the more fully they hold common views, the more efficient and successful each will be in his separate work. Hence, whenever a missionary organization has been alone in a large section it has seemed right as far as possible to select teachers from that communion, it being distinctly understood by the several missionary organizations that it is the purpose of the Government to provide non-sectarian instruction in the public schools and leave all persons to the fullest exercise of their religious liberty. Assurances of their desire to co operate with the Government in the schools have been received from the Episcopal, Moravian, Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian, and Congregational bodies. Interviews have also been held with the representatives of the Roman Catholic body. Up to the present time, however, arrangements have been effected and work commenced only by the Episcopalians, Presbyterians, and Moravians. Cooperation with others is hoped for during the coming season.


In view of the coming discussion in Congress of the "Blair bill," I deem it important to offer the following preliminary estimate respecting the illiterate population of Alaska between the ages of 10 and 20 years, both inclusive, and to recite the considerations which have led me to the conclusion below set forth.

Mr. Ivan Petroff's enumeration of the population of Alaska (page 33 of his special report, in United States Census of 1880, Vol. VIII) is as follows :

Divisions. Total. White. Creole. Eskimo. Aleut. Athabaskan. Tlinget. Hydah.
Arctic 3,094 .... .... 3,094 .... .... .... ....
Yukon 6,870 18 19 4,276 .... 2,557 .... ....
Kuskokwim 8,911 3 111 8,036 255 506 .... ....
Aleutian 2,451 82 479 .... 1,890 .... .... ....
Kodiak 4,352 34 917 2,211 .... 864 326 ....
Southeastern 7.748 298 230 .... .... .... 6,437 788
Total 33,426 430 1,756 17,617 2,145 3,927 6,783 788

Mr. Petroff does not discriminate between the sexes or the several ages of the population; but we may assume that the conditions as to sex do not differ materially from those existing in the adjacent "territories and Arctic islands" belonging to the Dominion of Canada, where the British census of 1881 reported 28,113 males and 28,333 females. The partial returns made by Russian officials from 1818 to 1861, quoted in Mr. Petroff's paper, give nearly the same proportion of the sexes, each being about half the population.

The proportion of minors to adults, as understood by the officials of the United States census and by statistical writers of recent date in this country, is not indicated by any of the statistics quoted by Mr. Petroff. The nearest approach to such a distinction is that made in the. partial census of 1839 by the Hudson Bay Company and quoted on pp. 36, 37 of Mr. Petroff's report. The free natives thus reported numbered 4,121 "adults" and 2,439 "children"; but the circumstances of that census indicate that stature, strength, and child-producing capacity may have had much more to do with the assignment of many individuals to the "adults" rather than to the "children."

I, for these reasons, venture to estimate the population of Alaska as. to age by the enumeration of the population of Washington Territory,, the organized Territory nearest to Alaska, with the following result :


Population 1880.

Minors under 10. Minors, 10 to 20. Adults, 21 and over.
Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent
Washington 75,116 19,396






Alaska 33,426 8,631 6,921 17,874

In the year 1880 the condition of affairs was about as follows :

The 430 whites mentioned in Mr. Petroff's enumeration were fairly-instructed adults; about 800 of the Creoles, or Russo-Alaskans, mentioned were able to write, nearly all of these being adults.

Of the Alaskan races I estimate that the number able to write was as follows: Aleuts, 500; Thlinget, 200; Hydah, 100; making 800 more such persons. There were, therefore, about 2,030 persons to be deducted from the estimated population ten or more years old, leaving 22,765 persons ten or more years old unable to write at that time.

[At this point tables are introduced reflecting monthly attendance in each school.  I am not transcribing this information.  Instead, I use this space to enter the teachers at the schools as shown in the tables.  Colleen]


Juneau - Miss Marion B. Murphy

School No. 1, Sitka - Miss Margaret Powell

Fort Wrangell - Miss Lydia McAvoy

Jackson - Miss Clara Gould

Haines - Miss Sarah M. Dickinson

Hoonah - John W. McFarland

Unalashka - Salomon Ripinsky

School No. 2, Sitka - Miss Katie A. Rankin teacher to March 15, 1866; Miss Elizabeth Patton teacher after March 15, 1886

Killisnoo - George B. Johnston

"In connection with this report I have the honor of inclosing you several important papers. As they furnish valuable information concerning the history and progress of school work in this section and some of the conditions which more or less modify it, I would recommend that they be printed as an appendix.

Through the courtesy of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey I inclose two maps to accompany the report. These maps are the only ones in existence that give the location of all the schools. As they embody the late explorations of Lieutenant Kay, 1881-83; Lieutenant Schwatka, 1883; Lieutenant Stoney, 1883-85; and Lieutenant Allen, 1885, they will be of great interest to the public and prove an important contribution to geographical history.

I also inclose a few photographic illustrations, showing the location of some of the schools, the appearance of the Eskimo on the Kuskokwim River, and their surroundings.

Thanking you for the firm and intelligent support you have given me, I remain, with great respect, yours truly,

General Agent.

The Hon. Commissioner of Education,
Washington, D. C.



 [Extract from the report of the Commissioner of Education, 1882-'83, pages xlv and xlvi.]

As this report is going through the press, the House of Representatives, on the 14th of May, 1884, passed the Senate bill providing a civil government for Alaska, which – was signed by the President on the 17th.

This act creates a governor at a salary of $3,000, a judge at $3,000, a district attorney at $2,500, a marshal at $"2,500, a clerk at $2,500, four commissioners at $1,000 each and fees, and four deputy marshals at $750 each and fees. These officers are appointed by the President, with the exception of the deputy marshals, who are appointed by the marshal.

The seat of government is established at Sitka. The four commissioners and four deputy marshals are to reside respectively at Sitka, Wrangell, Juneau, and Unalashka. The laws of Oregon, so far as applicable, are extended over the district. A term of the district court is to be held each year at Sitka, commencing on the first Monday of May, and one at Wrangell, beginning on the first Monday in November. No provision is made for a Territorial legislature or a delegate in Congress. The general land laws of the United States are not extended over the country. The squatter rights of Indians and others are recognized. Mission stations are continued in the occupancy of the 640 acres now claimed by them. The owners of mining claims can perfect their titles in the usual way.

The governor is required to inquire into the operations of the Alaska Commercial Company and annually report to Congress the result of such inquiries and any and all violations by said company of the agreement existing between the United States and said company.

The Secretary of the Interior is directed to select two of the officers, who, together with the governor, shall constitute a commission to examine into and report upon the condition of the Indians residing in said Territory ; what lands, if any, should be reserved for their use ; what provision shall be made for their education ; what rights by occupation of settlers should be recognized, and all other facts that may be necessary to enable Congress to determine what limitations or conditions should be imposed when the land laws of the United States shall be extended to said district. The importation, manufacture, and sale of intoxicating liquors in said district, except for medicinal, mechanical, and scientific purposes, are prohibited.

The Secretary of the Interior is directed to make needful and proper provision for the education of the children of school age in the Territory of Alaska, without reference to race, until such time as permanent provision shall be made for the same, and the sum of $25,000 is appropriated for this purpose.

Thus, after seventeen years of delay, a government has been secured for Alaska. In respect to this successful result this bureau has endeavored to do its whole duty by obtaining trustworthy information in regard to the condition of the inhabitants and their educational needs, and by furnishing it to the Government officers and to the people. In this effort Prof. W. H. Dall, of the United States Coast Survey, and Rev. G. H. Atkinson, D. D., of Oregon, were especially helpful.

The report of this office for 1870 had a notice of education in Alaska, and year after year these notices were continued as data warranted.

In 1876 the Commissioner of Education, as representative of the Department of the Interior, expended a portion of the funds at his control to secure a representation of native life in Alaska for the Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia.

In February, 188'2, a special report from this office on Education in Alaska, recommending an appropriation of #50,000 for schools, was made to the Secretary of the Interior, and by him forwarded to Congress through the President.

In 1877 Rev. Sheldon Jackson, D. D., superintendent of Presbyterian missions for the Rocky Mountain Territories, having had his attention called to Alaska, visited the southeastern portion, and established the first American school in that section on the 10th o f August, 1877, with Mrs. A. R. McFarland as teacher. Later, he established schools at Sitka, Haines (Chilkats), Boyd (Hoonah), and Jackson (Hydahs). Returning to the States, Dr. Jackson commenced an agitation to arouse the dormant public sentiment of the country in behalf of a government and schools for Alaska. He held public meetings in many of the leading cities and many of the prominent towns from the Pacific to the Atlantic, delivering from 1878 to 1884 about nine hundred addresses on' Alaska. He went before committees of the Forty-sixth, Forty-seventh, and Forty-eighth Congresses, and with unflagging zeal sought to enlist the interest of Congressmen. He secured the hearty co-operation of the missionary societies of the Baptist, Methodist, Congregational, Episcopal, Moravian, and Presbyterian churches.

In 1880 he published a book on Alaska, and on March 23, 1882, delivered an address before the Department of Superintendence of the National Educational Association, which was printed by this Bureau in Circular of Information No. 2, 1882. Of this circular three editions have been called for, making an aggregate of 60,000 copies. During the summer of 1883 he visited the twenty-second annual meeting of the National Educational Association of the United States, the second National Educational Assembly, and the State Teachers' Associations of Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Connecticut, each of which passed strong resolutions asking Congress to provide a school system for Alaska.

Through these meetings the teachers became interested, and thousands of petitions from teachers, scattered from Maine to Texas and from Florida to Oregon, were sent to Congressmen, asking for schools for Alaska. So persistent and continuous was the pressure invoked by Dr. Jackson from so many, varied, and widely separated forces, that when the bill was reached Congress passed it with great unanimity.


AN ACT providing a civil government for Alaska.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the territory ceded to the United States by Russia by the treaty of March thirtieth, eighteen hundred and sixty-seven, and known as Alaska, shall constitute a civil and judicial district, the government of which shall be organized and administered as hereinafter provided. The temporary seat of government of said district is hereby established at Sitka.

Sec. 2. That there shall be appointed for the said district a governor, who shall reside therein during his term of office and be charged with the interests of the United States Government that may arise within said district. To the end aforesaid he shall have authority to see that the laws enacted for said district are enforced, and to require the faithful discharge of their duties by the officials appointed to administer the same. He may also grant reprieves for offenses committed against the laws of the district or of the United States until the decision of the President thereon shall be made known. He shall be ex-officio commander-in-chief of the militia of said district, and shall have power to call out the same when necessary to the due execution of the laws and to preserve the peace, and to cause all able-bodied citizens of the United States in said district to enroll and serve as such when the public exigency demands ; and he shall perform generally in and over said district such acts as pertain to the office of governor of a Territory, so far as the same may be made or become applicable thereto. He shall make an annual report, on the first day of October in each year, to the President of the United States, of his official acts and doings, and of the condition of said district, with reference to its resources, industries, population, and the administration of the civil government thereof. And the President of the United States shall have power to review and to confirm or annul any reprieves granted or other acts done by him.

Sec. 3. That there shall be, and hereby is, established a district court for said district, with the civil and criminal jurisdiction of district courts of the United States, and the civil and criminal jurisdiction of district courts of the United States exercising the jurisdiction of circuit courts, and such other jurisdiction, not inconsistent with this act, as may be established by law ; and a district judge shall be appointed for said district, who shall during his term of office reside therein and hold at least two terms of said court therein in each year, one at Sitka, beginning on the first Monday in May, and the other at Wrangell, beginning on the first Monday in November. He is also authorized and directed to hold such special sessions as may be necessary for the dispatch of the business of said court, at such times and places in said district as he may deem expedient, and may adjourn such special session to any other time previous to a regular session. He shall have authority to employ interpreters, and to make allowances for the necessary expenses of his court.

Sec. 4. That a clerk shall be appointed for said court, who shall be ex-officio secretary and treasurer of said district, a district attorney, and a marshal, all of whom shall during their terms of office reside therein. The clerk shall record and preserve copies of all the laws, proceedings, and official acts applicable to said district. He shall also receive all moneys collected from tines, forfeitures, or in any other manner except from violations of the custom laws, and shall apply the same to the incidental expenses of the said district court and the allowances thereof, as directed by the judge of said court, and shall account for the same in detail, and for any balances on account thereof, quarterly, to and under the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury. He shall be ex-officio recorder of deeds and mortgages and certificates of location of mining claims and other contracts relating to real estate and register of wills for said district, and shall establish secure offices in the towns of Sitka and Wrangell, in said district, for the safekeeping of all his official records, and of records concerning the reformation and establishment of the present status of titles to lands, as hereinafter directed : Provided, That the district court hereby created may direct, if it shall deem it expedient, the establishment of separate offices at the settlements of Wrangell, Unalashka, and Juneau City, respectively, for the recording of such instruments as may pertain to the several natural divisions of said district most convenient to said settlements, the limits of which shall, in the event of such direction, be defined by said court; and said offices shall be in charge of the commissioners respectfully, as hereinafter provided.

Sec. 5. That there shall be appointed by the President four commissioners in and for the said district who shall have the jurisdiction and powers of commissioners of the United States circuit courts in any part of said district, but who shall reside, one at Sitka, one at Wrangell one at Unalashka, and one at Juneau City. Such commissioners shall exercise all the duties and powers, civil and criminal, now conferred on justices of the peace under the general laws of the State of Oregon, so far as the same may be applicable in said district, and may not be in conflict with this act or the laws of the United States. They shall also have jurisdiction, subject to the supervision of the district judge, in all testamentary and probate matters, and for this purpose their courts shall be opened at stated terms and be courts of record, and be provided with a seal for the authentication of their official acts. They shall also have power to grant writs of habeas corpus for the purpose of inquiring into the cause of restraint of liberty, which writs shall be made returnable before the said district judge for said district ; and like proceedings shall be had thereon as if the same had been granted by said judge under the general laws of the United States in such cases. Said commissioners shall also have the powers of notaries public, and shall keep a record of all deeds and other instruments of writing acknowledged before them and relating to the title to or transfer of property within said district, which record shall be subject to public inspection. Said commissioners shall also keep a record of all fines and forfeitures received by them, and shall pay over the same quarterly to the clerk of said district court. The governor appointed under the provisions of this act shall, from time to time, inquire into the operations of the Alaska Seal and Fur Company, and shall annually report to Congress the result of such inquiries and any and all violations by said company of the agreement existing between the United States and said company.

Sec. 6. That the marshal for said district shall have the general authority and powers of the United States marshals of the States and Territories. He shall be the executive officer of said court, and charged with the execution of all process of said court and with the transportation and custody of prisoners, and he shall be ex-officio keeper of the jail or penitentiary of said district. He shall appoint four deputies, who shall reside severally at the towns of Sitka, Wrangell, Unalashka, and Juneau City, and they shall respectively be ex-officio constables and executive officers of the commissioners' courts herein provided, and shall have the powers and discharge the duties of United States deputy marshals, and those of constables under the laws of the State of Oregon now in force.

Sec. 7. That the general laws of the State of Oregon now in force are hereby declared to be the law in said district, so far as the same may be applicable and not in conflict with the provisions of this act or the laws of the United States ; and the sentence of imprisonment in any criminal case shall be carried out by confinement in the jail or penitentiary hereinafter provided for. But the said district court shall have exclusive jurisdiction in all cases in equity or those involving a question of title to land, or mining rights, or the constitutionality of a law, and in all criminal offenses which are capital. In all civil cases, at common law, any issue of fact shall be determined by a jury, at the instance of either party; and an appeal shall lie in any case, civil or criminal, from the judgment of said commissioners to the said district court where the amount involved in any civil case is two hundred dollars or more, and in any criminal case where a fine of more than one hundred dollars or imprisonment is imposed, upon the filing of a sufficient appeal bond by the party appealing, to be approved by the court or commissioner. Writs of error in criminal cases shall issue to the said district court from the United States circuit court for the district of Oregon in the cases provided in chapter one hundred and seventy-six of the laws of eighteen hundred and seventy-nine ; and the jurisdiction thereby conferred upon circuit courts is hereby given to the circuit court of Oregon. And the final judgments or decrees of said circuit and district court may be reviewed by the Supreme Court of the United States as in other cases.

Sec. 8. That the said district of Alaska is hereby created a land district, and a United States land-office for said district is hereby located at Sitka. The commissioner provided for by this act to reside at Sitka shall be ex-officio register of said land-office, and the clerk provided for by this act shall be ex-officio receiver of public moneys, and the marshal provided for by this act shall be ex-officio surveyor general of said district, and the laws of the United States relating to mining claims, and the rights incident thereto, shall, from and after the passage of this act, be in full force and effect in said district, under the administration thereof herein provided for, subject to such regulations as may be made by the Secretary of the Interior, approved by "the President: Provided, That the Indians or other persons in said district shall not be disturbed in the possession of any lands actually in their use or occupation or now claimed by them, but the terms under which such persons may acquire title to such lands is reserved for future legislation by Congress: And provided further, That parties who have located mines or mineral privileges therein under the laws of the United States applicable to the public domain, or who have occupied and improved or exercised acts of ownership over such claims, shall not be disturbed therein, but shall be allowed to perfect their title to such claims by payment as aforesaid: And provided also, That the land not exceeding six hundred and forty acres at any station now occupied as missionary stations among the Indian tribes in said section, with the improvements thereon erected by or for such societies, shall be continued in the occupancy of the several religious societies to which said missionary stations respectively belong until action by Congress. But nothing contained in this act shall be construed to put in force in said district the general land laws of the United States.

Sec. 9. That the governor, attorney, judge, marshal, clerk, and commissioners provided for in this act shall be appointed by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and shall hold their respective offices for the term of four years, and until their successors, are appointed and qualified. They shall severally receive the fees of office established by law for the several offices the duties of which have been hereby conferred upon them, as the same are determined and allowed in respect of similar offices under the laws of the United States, which fees shall be reported to the Attorney-General and paid into the Treasury of the United States. They shall receive respectively the following annual salaries : The governor, the sum of three thousand dollars; the attorney, the sum of two thousand five hundred dollars; the marshal, the sum of two thousand five hundred dollars; the judge, the sum of three thousand dollars ; and the clerk, the sum of two thousand five hundred dollars, payable to them quarterly from the Treasury of the United States. The district judge, marshal, and district attorney shall be paid their actual, necessary expenses when traveling in the discharge of their official duties. A detailed account shall be rendered of such expenses under oath, and as to the marshal and district attorney such account shall be approved by the judge, and as to his expenses by the Attorney-General. The commissioners shall receive the usual fees of United States commissioners and justices of the peace for Oregon, and such fees for recording instruments as are allowed by the laws of Oregon for similar services, and in addition a salary of one thousand dollars each. The deputy marshals, in addition to the usual fees of constables in Oregon, shall receive each a salary of seven hundred and fifty dollars, which salaries shall also be payable quarterly out of the Treasury of the United States. Each of said officials shall, before entering on the duties of his office, take and subscribe an oath that he will faithfully execute the same, which said oath may be taken before the judge of said district or any United States district or circuit judge. That all officers appointed for said district, before entering upon the duties of their offices, shall take the oaths required by law, and the laws of the United States, not locally inapplicable to said district and not inconsistent with the provisions of this act, are hereby extended thereto; but there shall be no legislative assembly in said district, nor shall any delegate be sent to Congress therefrom. And the said clerk shall execute a bond, with sufficient sureties, in the penalty of ten thousand dollars, tor the faithful performance of his duties, and file the same with the Secretary of the Treasury before entering on the duties of his office; and the commissioners shall each execute a bond, with sufficient sureties, in the penalty of three thousand dollars, for the faithful performance of their duties, and tile the same with the clerk before entering on the duties of their office.

Sec. 10. That any of the public buildings in said district not required for the customs service or military purposes shall be used for court-rooms and offices of the civil government ; and the Secretary of the Treasury is hereby directed to instruct and authorize the custodian of said buildings forthwith to make such repairs to the jail in the town of Sitka, in said district, as will render it suitable for a jail and penitentiary for the purposes of the civil government hereby provided, and to surrender to the marshal the custody of said jail and the other public buildings, or such parts of said buildings as may be selected for court-rooms, offices, and officials.

Sec. 11. That the Attorney-General is directed forthwith to compile and cause to be printed, in the English language, in pamphlet form, so much of the general laws of the United States as is applicable to the duties of the governor, attorney, judge, clerk, marshals, and commissioners appointed for said district, and shall furnish for the use of the officers of said Territory so many copies as may be needed of the laws of Oregon applicable to said district.

Sec. 12. That the Secretary of the Interior shall select two of the officers to be appointed under this act, who, together with the governor, shall constitute a commission to examine into and report upon the condition of the Indians residing in said Territory, what lands, if any, should be reserved for their use, what provision shall be made for their education, what rights by occupation of settlers should be recognized, and all other facts that may be necessary to enable Congress to determine what limitations or conditions should be imposed when the land laws of the United States shall be extended to said district; and to defray the expenses of said commission the sum of two thousand dollars is hereby appropriated out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated.

Sec. 13. That the Secretary of the Interior shall make needful and proper provision for the education of the children of school age in the Territory of Alaska., without reference to race, until such time as permanent provision shall be made for the same, and the sum of twenty-five thousand dollars, or so much thereof as may be necessary, is hereby appropriated for this purpose.

Sec. 14. That the provisions of chapter three, title twenty-three, of the Revised Statutes of the United States, relating to the unorganized Territory of Alaska, shall remain in full force, except as herein specially otherwise provided ; and the importation, manufacture, and sale of intoxicating liquors in said district except for medicinal, mechanical and scientific purposes is hereby prohibited under the penalties which are provided in section nineteen hundred and fifty-five of the Revised Statutes for the wrongful importation of distilled spirits. And the President of the United States shall make such regulations as are necessary to carry out the provisions of this section.

Approved, May 17, 1884.


Department of the Interior,
Washington, D. C, March 2, 1885.

Sir: Section 1.3 of the act providing a civil government for Alaska devolves upon the Secretary of the Interior the duty of making needful and proper provision for the education of children of school age in that Territory until permanent provision shall be made for the same.

The nature of the duties assigned by section 516 of the Revised Statutes to the Commissioner of Education would seem to point him out as the proper officer through whom the purpose of Congress should be carried into execution.

I have to request, therefore, that you prepare a plan of operation and initiate such steps as are necessary and proper for carrying into effect the legislation above referred to, reporting the results of the same as may be hereafter directed by the Secretary of the Interior or whenever in your judgment there may be occasion for so doing.

Very respectfully, &c.,




Department of the Interior,
Bureau of Education,
Washington, D. C, April9, 1885.

Sir: In carrying out the orders of the Department under the law providing for the establishment of common schools in Alaska, I tend a condition of facts which I wish to submit to your consideration, together with a recommendation. The nearest school in Alaska will be about 4,800 miles from Washington, and all of the schools will be widely separated from each other, some of them doubtless over 6,000 miles from this city. The appropriation of $25,000 for the entire work is very small, and much should be done in the way of inducing the communities where there is money to co-operate in bearing expenses, and thus increasing the amount to be accomplished by the small fund at command. I see no way to organize schools sufficiently under these circumstances but by the appointment of some one in Alaska as a general agent of education.

Residing at Sitka, this superintendent could go out in the naval vessel to visit the several chief centers of population where schools can be established, and interest the people, judge intelligently of the requirements for buildings, teachers, &c., and thus furnish the data for intelligent direction of the schools, here in Washington. I therefore recommend that a general agent of education for Alaska be appointed by the Secretary of the Interior, to report to this office for orders and instructions, at a nominal salary of $1,200 a year, which will but little more than cover expenses. Before concluding to make this recommendation I may add that I have conferred with a considerable number of very intelligent persons who have visited Alaska, all of whom thoroughly concur in the view that it would be impossible to manage schools there efficiently without a local superintendent.

The governor of the Territory when here recently expressed himself to the same effect. In looking for the proper person to become such an agent, I find no one either so well qualified or so strongly recommended as Mr. Sheldon Jackson. He has repeatedly visited considerable portions of the country, and written a book which is a popular source of information in regard to its people and their progress, and led the way in the establishment of the schools at present taught in the Territory, and is now their superintendent. He was unanimously recommended for the position of superintendent of instruction by all of the private organizations some time since aiming to promote education in Alaska, and by a considerable number of prominent men. I have known Mr. Jackson thoroughly for a considerable number of years. He is a Christian gentleman, of excellent ability, great energy, and, I believe, specially fitted to carry through, successfully, the plan of establishing schools in that far off country,

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,"


The Hon. Secretary ok the Interior,
Washington, D. C.

Approved : L. Q. C. Lamar,


National Educational Association.

Officers for 1885-'86.

President. -- N. A. Calkins, of New York. Secretary. -- W. E. Sheldon, of Massachusetts. Treasurer. -- E. C. Hewett, of Illinois. Vice- President s.-- F. Louis Soldan, of Missouri ; S. T. Dutton, of Connecticut ; James MacAlister, of Pennsylvania; L. D. Brown, of Ohio; Julius D. Dreher, of Virginia; S. M. Finger, of North Carolina; Edward E. Sheib, of Louisiana ; J. Baldwin, of Texas; J. W. Stearns, of Wisconsin ; J. L. Pickard, of Iowa ; Z. Richards, of the District of Columbia ; Ella C. Sabin, of Oregon.

Counselors at large. -- John Eaton, of the District of Columbia ; E. E. White, of Ohio.

Counselors. -- W. J. Corthell, of Maine ; C. C. Rounds, of New Hampshire; Justus Dart, of Vermont ; Sarah E. Doyle, of Rhode Island ; Charles D. Hine, of Connecticut ; McLain, of New York; W. N. Barringer, of New Jersey ; H. S. Jones, of Pennsylvania ; G. Stanley Hall, of Maryland ; S. C. Armstrong, of Virginia ; S. B. Brown, of West Virginia; Charles E. Taylor, of North Carolina; V. C. Dibble, of South Carolina; J. M. F. Irwin, of Georgia; Julia Tutweiler, of Alabama; J. R. Preston, of Mississippi ; E. Nicholson, of Louisiana; O. V. Hayes, of Arkansas; Clara Conway, of Tennessee; W, D. Parker, of Wisconsin; R. D. Allen, of Kentucky ; Robert Stevenson, of Ohio ; O. S. Westcott, of Illinois ; S. S. Parr, of Indiana ; Henry Sabin, of Iowa; Irwin Shepard, of Minnesota ; J. S. Cowdin, of Florida ; H. C. Spear, of Kansas; E. H. Long, of Missouri ; W. W. W. Jones, of Nebraska; John Swett of California; A. Gove, of Colorado; G. C. Hall, of Arizona; F. H. Crawford, of Oregon ; J. M. Fendley, of Texas; J. S. Ingraham, of Washington Territory; J. M. Coyner, of Utah; W. H. H. Beadle, of Dakota; A. S. Nichols, of Montana; John Hitz, of District of Columbia ; J. H. Covell, of Indian Territory; Charles S. Young, of Nevada; Larkin Dunton, of Massachusetts ; W. H. Payne, of Michigan.

At the Twenty-fifth annual session of the National Association, at Saratoga Springs, July 14-17, 1885, the following resolution was adopted:

"This association rejoices to know that Congress has provided for schooling the children of Alaska, and that Dr. Sheldon Jackson has been designated as agent to organize these schools. We know of no one so well qualified as he is for this distant and difficult task, and we send him our heartiest greetings."



[Extract from the report of the Hon. A. P. Swineford, governor of Alaska, to the Secretary of the Interior, 1885.]


The organic act approved May 17, 1884, provided an appropriation of $25,000 "for the education of the children of school age in the Territory of Alaska, without reference to race, "and by act of July 4, 1884, a further appropriation of $15,000 is made "for the support and education of Indian children of both sexes at industrial schools in Alaska." By the terms of the first-mentioned act the honorable the Secretary of the Interior is required to make such proper and needful provision as may be necessary to the proper application of the sum appropriated thereby ; but nothing was done in that direction until the 3d of March following, when the work of establishing a common-school system in Alaska was committed to the Bureau of Education. The Hon. L. Q. C. Lamar gave early attention to the matter, after taking the portfolio of the Interior Department, and in April Rev. Sheldon Jackson was appointed general agent of education for the Territory. The general agent reports that he has, during the past summer, established and placed competent teachers in charge of schools at Juneau, Sitka, Wrangell, Jackson, Boyd (Hoonah), Haines, and Unalashka. A corps of teachers has also been sent to establish schools on the Kuskokwim River, 150 miles above where it empties into the Bering Sea. The schooner on which these teachers sailed arrived at the mouth of the river on the I9th of June, and presumably by this time have their buildings up and their schools in operation. The population of this last-named section is exclusively Eskimo. In addition to these, schools have been authorized, but not established, at Killisnoo, Klawak, Kadiak, Unga, Belkofsky, Wood Island, Saint Michaels, and Fort Yukon. I am reliably informed that the Aleuts are especially anxious for the establishment of English schools in their midst, and that they need only to be supplied with educational facilities to complete the civilization in which they are already well advanced.

In this connection I desire to say that in my opinion the sum appropriated for the establishment and maintenance of common schools in Alaska is not nearly sufficient. No argument is needed to establish this fact. A glance at a map showing the location of the schools enumerated as having already been and remaining yet to be established ought to be sufficiently convincing. Aside from the cost of their original establishment, the supervision and control involves many thousands of miles of expensive travel annually on the part of the general agent and the teachers. The appropriation should be increased to at least $50,000.

Various suggestions present themselves as pertinent to the subject in hand, among them the necessity of a compulsory-attendance law, and one making provision for the placing of native orphan children and those rescued from slavery in industrial schools ; but these and many other things necessary to the educational and other interests of the Territory will be easy of accomplishment when Congress shall have given Alaska a form of government which will enable her people to legislate for themselves on all questions of a purely local character.

The industrial school at Sitka, I am pleased to be able to report, is making fair progress and doing excellent work in the education and training of native boys and girls, in the mechanical trades on the one hand, and a knowledge of household work and duties on the other. The appropriations made by Congress for the support of this school could not have been directed to a better purpose, and I respectfully suggest that they should be materially increased, to the end that another and similar institution may be established in the Aleutian Islands in accordance with what I understand to have been the original plan, thus completing for the time being the common school system of the Territory -- the children who manifest more than average aptitude and progress in the common schools to be advanced to the others. But one section of the Territory can derive any considerable benefit from this proposed grade system until an additional training school at Unalashka is provided for. I therefore urge that Congress be asked for an appropriation sufficient to erect the necessary buildings not only for such additional training school, but which will likewise enable the Commissioner of Indian Affairs to pay the same amount per capita for the support and education of Indian pupils in Alaska as is paid at all the other industrial schools in the country, the amount now allowed being considerably less. Provision should also be made for supplying one or both these schools with an experimental farmer, a dressmaker and seamstress, and a saw-mill. The latter would be self-supporting from the start, and of great benefit by way of enabling the natives to provide themselves with comfortable houses.



Annual reports of the schools on the Pribiloff Islands, 1870-'85.

Treasury Department, Office of the Secretary,
Washington, D. C, December 2, 1885.

Sir : The Department is in receipt of your letter of the 23d ultimo, requesting copies of reports of Treasury agents in regard to the condition of the schools on the islands of St. Paul and St. George in Alaska, from the beginning (1868 or 1869).

In compliance with your request I transmit herewith extracts from the following reports :

Extract from report of Special Agent Charles Bryant, dated May 14, 1870.

Extract from report of Special Agent Charles Bryant, dated October 19, 1870.

Extract from report of Mr. S. N. Buynitzky, clerk and agent, dated December 30, 1870.

Extract from report of Special Agent Charles Bryant, dated May 19, 1871.

Extract from report of Special Agent Samuel Falconer, dated August 3, 1871.

Extract from report of Special Agent Charles Bryant, dated November 10, 1871.

Extract from report of Special Agent Charles Bryant, dated September 5, 1872.

Extract from report of Special Agent Samuel Falconer, dated May 27, 1873.

Extract from report of Special Agent Charles Bryant, dated September 30, 1873.

Extract from report of Special Agent Charles Bryant, dated May 12, 1875.

Extract from report of Special Agent Charles Bryant, dated August 1, 1877.

Extract from report of Special Agent J. M. Morton, dated May 15, 1878.

Extract from report of Special Agent Harrison G. Otis, dated June 1, 1879.

Extract from report of Special Agent Harrison G. Otis, dated July 30, 1880.

Extract from report of Special Agent Harrison G. Otis, dated July 30, 1881.

Extract from report of Special Agent Henry A. Glidden, dated .July 21, 1882.

Extract from report of Special Agent Henry A. Glidden, dated July 30, 1883.

Extract from report of Special Agent Henry A. Glidden, dated July 31, 1884.

The extract from the report for 1885 appears to have been forwarded to you on the 21st ultimo.

It appears by the terms of the lease of the islands of Saint Paul and Saint George to the Alaska Commercial Company, which continues for a term of twenty (20) years, from May 1, 1870, that said company is bound to maintain a school on each island for eight months in each year during the continuance of said lease.

The abstracts of accounts submitted by the Treasury agents seem to show that said provision has thus far been complied with.

Very respectfully,

Assistant Secretary.

Rev. Sheldon Jackson, D. D.,
United States General Agent of Education in Alaska.

Island of Saint Paul,

Alaska, October 19, 1870.

Sir: In conclusion, I take pleasure in bringing to the notice of the Department a fact witnessed by me in my last visit to the island of Saint George, a fact gratifying to all those who, like myself, feel interested in the future moral development of the Aleutian population. On the 14th instant I was present at the examination of a school of twelve boys and six girls in English reading ; they distinctly read any page of Wilson's primer, counted up to one thousand, named the days of the week, the months and seasons of the year, various articles of dress, household implements, &c., &c. This was the result of about three months' work. Rendering justice to the zeal and ability of the founder of the school, Mr. S. N. Buynitzky, I cannot refuse a due share of praise to the natural gifts of the Aleutian race, and I beg leave to ex- press here my earnest belief that the Aleuts might become as good American citizens as any admitted under the fifteenth amendment to the Constitution.

I am, sir, with great respect,

Special Agent Treasury Department.

Hon. George S. Boutwell,
Secretary of the Treasury.

Washington, D. C, December 30, 1870.

Sir : By letter of instructions of May 25, 1870. * * * The population of the islands, numbering 240 on Saint Paul and 125 on Saint George, are mostly Aleuts, some half-breeds, and a few descendants of Kamtchadales brought over from Kamtchatka by the vessels of the Russian-American Company. Their mother-tongue is the Aleutian, a language spoken with slight variations all over the Aleutian Islands and the southeast coast of Alaska peninsula. The Russian language is understood by all and intelligently spoken by many. They all belong to the Graco-Russian Catholic Church, and are sincerely attached to their religion.

According to the statement of the natives of the islands of Saint Paul and Saint George, a notable improvement in their material welfare has taken place since the transfer of the Territory to the United States. Still, their prosperity is far from being in harmony with the importance of their share in the production of wealth,

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,


Hon. George S. Boutwell,
Secretary of the Treasury.

Saint George Island,
Bering Sea, Alaska Territory, May 14, 1871.

Sir : Having been appointed by you October 10, 1870, to act as your assistant on Saint George Island, I beg leave to submit the following report :

On the 1st of November last a school was re-established for the natives, the attendants of which number about 2.5 ; and from the advanced state they were left in by our friend, Mr. Buynitzky, it was no difficult task to get along with them. They are making rapid progress, and feel anxious to learn the English language. Even men who have advanced to the age of thirty and forty attend school, and are making equal progress.

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant,

Acting Assistant Special Agent.

Capt. Chas. Bryant,
Special Agent Treasury Department , in charge of Seal Islands.

Office Special Agency,
Saint Paul Island, Alaska, May 19, 1871.

Sir : I have the honor to report. * * * In November last a school was opened for the natives, which was attended by twenty-nine pupils, who were between the ages of seventeen and five years. The average attendance was 95 per cent. All manifested great interest in learning the English language, and made good progress. All learned the alphabet, and many were able to read simple sentences.

I herewith transmit a very able report of Acting Assistant Special Agent Samuel Falconer on the condition of the island of Saint George, under his charge.

I have the honor to be, respectfully, yours,

Special Agent Treasury Department.

Hon. Geo. S. Boutwell,
Secretary of the Treasury.

Special Agent's Office,
Saint George Island, August 3, 1871.

Sir: I have the honor to report.  The school which was supported through last winter has been suspended for the sealing season, but will be again opened as soon as it shall seem profitable to do so.

I am, respectfully,

Special Agent.

Charles Bryant, Esq.,
Special Agent Treasury Department, Saint Paul Island.

Fairhaven, Mass., November 10, 1871.

Sir : I have the honor to report.  The only possible place where a school could be accommodated was the dining-room of the employees of the company, and that could be had only two hours in each afternoon. As early as practicable a school was opened, and both parents and children were deeply interested in its success. It was attended by 29 scholars between the ages of five and eighteen, the average attendance being 9.5 per cent. All learned the alphabet, and many to read simple sentences, hut great difficulty was experienced in enabling them to understand the meaning, their isolated condition being unfavorable to the development of ideas, and it was found that the only effective method was object teaching, for which there existed a scanty supply of material. The school had to be closed in April, and owing to the difficulty of many attending during the sealing season, it had not been resumed. At the time of my leaving (August 15) a large building was being fitted expressly for the school and a place for the people to assemble.

There are on the islands a population of 376 natives, so called ; these are about one-half pure Aleutian blood, the other half Creole blood ; in several the foreign element predominates. They have a well-organized system of government, under chiefs of their own election, subject to removal at the will of the people, whenever they choose. Those now acting have done so for three years, and are very efficient men. These exercise a kind of patriarchal supervision over the affairs of the whole people, but possess no power to enforce their authority beyond the expression of their will. This meets all their wants as a simple community, but there sometimes arise contingencies when this is insufficient.

I have the honor to remain,

Special Agent Treasury Department.

Hon. Geo. S. Boutwell,
Secretary of the Treasury.

Treasury Agent's Office,
Saint Paul Island, Alaska,

September 5, 1872.

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report of the affairs of the Seal Islands since my last, dated May 7, 1872.

The school has been discontinued during the sealing season, but will be resumed again as soon as the vessels are gone.

I have the honor to remain,

Treasury Agent in charge Seal Islands.

Hon. Geo. S. Boutwell,
Secretary Treasury.

Assistant Treasury Agent's Office,
Saint George Island, May 27, 1873.

Sir: Having reported to you in detail in the month of August last --

The school was maintained through the winter, but has met with quite a drawback on the part of the children's parents; they entertain the idea that by learning an English education it will interfere with their religion. The absurdity of this has been fully explained to them, and a few have consented to have their children attend, although not regular, while others are still of the original belief. Thus, where no inducement is held forth by the children's parents, slow progress may be expected, not but what much pains has been taken by their teacher. Would it not be well to notify their bishop at Sitka in reference to this, who would be most likely to banish this erroneous idea from their minds entirely ?

Assistant Treasury Agent in Charge of Saint George Island.

Fairhaven, Mass., September 30, 1873.

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the condition --

The census taken January 1, 1873, on Saint Paul Island gives the number of the native inhabitants on the island 218; to these should be added the seventeen then absent and properly to be reckoned as belonging to the island, making in all 235, showing a decrease since 1870 of 12 persons. These are divided as follows : Males, 114 ; females, 121.

A school-house was fitted up and properly consecrated, and a school commenced October 2, and continued eight months; but on account of a prejudice among the people, who have a fear that in learning English their children will forget their Russian and weaken their attachment to their church, only seven attended regularly. Under the assiduous care of the teacher, these made very commendable progress. There were at the same time three classes taught by natives, two in Russian and one in Aleut; in all, 17 scholars attended schools of all kinds. Assistant Agent Samuel Falconer reports the same difficulties existing on the island of Saint George in regard to securing attendance at school.

Treasury Agent for Seal Islands.


Treasury Agent's Office,
Saint Paul Island, Alaska,

May 12, 1875.

Sir : I have the honor to inform you of the arrival at this island, on the 10th ult., – of the Alaska Commercial Company's steamer Alexander, 22 days from San Francisco.

The school was commenced in the first week of October, and kept continually, except public and church holidays. The first months a very general attendance was secured, but with the commencement of the church holidays the attendance fell off, and it was difficult, without actual compulsion, to secure so great an attendance as was desirable. Mrs. C. P. Fish labored diligently and perseveringly to accomplish her task, and a few who have become attached to her have made good progress in reading, writing, and simple arithmetic. The strong prejudice that exists among some of the more bigoted against their children learning English, lest it should weaken their attachment to the Russian church, prevents a cordial action on the part – of many.

I have the honor to remain,

Treasury Agent in Charge Seal Islands.

Hon. B. H. Bristow,
Secretary of the Treasury.

Fairhaven, Mass., August 1, 1877.

Sir: I have the honor to submit the following brief report on the affairs of the Seal Islands from the date of my last report, dated September 26, 1876, to May 15, 1877.

The school was commenced October 2 -- Miss Juniatte B. Pierce as teacher -- and continued to the end of May. At the commencement a full attendance was secured, which continued until the holidays in January. From that time it was difficult to secure a full attendance, from lack of interest and appreciation by the parents of the children. Those who attended regularly made very good progress, but owing to their having no practical use of the English language outside of the school-room, there is very little exhibition of its knowledge, unless they are questioned directly for the purpose of drawing them out.

I have the honor to remain, yours, respectfully,

Ex-Treasury Agent for Seal Islands.

Hon. John Sherman,
Secretary of the Treasury.

Office of the Treasury Agent,
Saint Paul Island, Alaska,

May l0, 1878.

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following statement relative to affairs at the seal fisheries since the date of my last report in May, 1^77 :

A school was maintained on the island from the 17th of September, 1877, to the 17th of May, making eight months. As the people were very desirous of the establishment of a Russian school, the use of the company's school-house was granted for that purpose in the afternoons, and the English school has therefore been held only during the morning hours. This arrangement has served to dispel the objection heretofore held by the people to their children attending the English school, which they contended would effectually interfere with the acquisition of the Russian tongue, in which their church service is conducted. Before the opening of the English school, I took pains to explain to the parents the importance of sending their children, and stated to them that every child of proper age and condition would be required to attend. Treasury Agent Moulton has since given his close personal attention to this matter with very excellent results. The average attendance of boys and girls during the term was about thirty, which was much larger than has ever been given to any previous school. Under an excellent lady teacher the progress made by the children in the elementary branches has been very commendable.

The population of this island on the 1st day of January, 1878, was 257, divided as follows: Males, 118; females, 139.

The number of births during the year 1877 was 13, and the number of deaths 18,

Very respectfully,

Treasury Agent in Charge Seal Inlands.

[Office of Special Agent, Treasury Department, in charge of Fur Seal Islands, Alaska.]

Saint Paul Island, June 1, 1879.

Sir : I have the honor to report my arrival here on the 27th ultimo to enter upon the discharge of my duties as special agent.

I found Assistant Special Agent J. 11. Moulton in charge, and obtained from him information touching the condition of affairs on the island during the past winter, which has been generally favorable, and of which I submit herewith a brief report. 

I have no report from Saint George Island. The English school here was taught three hours each week-day from September 2, 1878, to May 8, 1879 -- eight months -- with an average daily attendance of 38 out of a total of 42 on the school roll. The Russian school was taught from two to three hours a day (in the afternoon) with an average attendance of about 44. Assistant Special Agent Moulton appears to have taken great interest in the English school, and to have exerted himself to promote its efficiency, as also has the teacher, James Butrin, a native Aleut, educated in Vermont. * * *

Respectfully, your obedient servant,

Special Agent Treasury Department, in charge of Fur Seal Islands.

Hon. John Sherman,
Secretary of the Treasury, Washington, D. C.

[Office Special Agent Treasury Department, in charge of Seal Islands.]

Saint Paul Island, Alaska, July 30, 1880.

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report on the results of the sealing season, just closed, on the islands of Saint Paul and Saint George, and other affairs of the Seal Islands, during the year which has elapsed since my last annual report.

The native population of Saint Paul Island, as shown by the census taken on the 1st of January, 1880, embraced 85 resident families, and a total of 278 souls. During the year there were 9 marriages, 19 births, and 18 deaths on this island.

Saint George Island, by the census taken July 1, 1880, had a total population of 92 souls; the families numbered 25, and there were 4 marriages, 5 births, and 6 deaths during the year.

English schools have been maintained during eight months of the year on both islands. They were well taught, and the progress made by the pupils in their studies – was not discreditable. The attendance on the Saint George school was good, being 100 per cent, of the whole number of pupils enrolled -- 24. There was something of a falling off in the attendance on this island over that of the preceding year, the percentage being but 75 of the enrollment -- 40.

I am, sir, respectfully, your obedient servant,

Treasury Agent, in charge.

Office of Special Agent, Treasury Department,
Saint Paul Island, July 30, 1881.

Sir : I have the honor to submit my annual report on sealing operations and other affairs at the Seal Islands during the past year.

The last census of Saint Paul Island, taken December 31, 1880, shows a total native population of 279 souls. Two marriages, 21 births, and 20 deaths occurred during that year.

Saint George Island, by the census of July, 1881, had a total native population of 102 souls. Two marriages, 6 births, and 6 deaths occurred during the year on that island.

English schools have been maintained by the lessees on each island during eight mouths of the year, three hours of the day. The enrollment of children of school age was, on Saint Paul Island, 40 ; on Saint George, 28 ; total, 68.

The average attendance was a fraction less than 62. The progress made is perceptible, though not rapid as heretofore. On Saint Paul Island a Russian school has been kept by a sub-priest (under a concession formerly made) during most of the same period, about three hours a day, five days a week, church holidays excepted. These holidays are very frequent, amounting to some thirty-three during the last school term, and interfere seriously with the regularity of the school attendance. On this account I made the rule that, without encroaching upon the regular church holidays or customs, the English school hours should either be increased or the term extended 80 as to make it equivalent to not less than two hundred actual school days of not less than three hours each.

I remain, sir, your obedient servant,

Treasury Agent, in charge.

Hon. William Windom,
Secretary of the Treasury, Washington, D. C.


Office of the Special Agent, Treasury Department,
Saint Paul Island, July 21, 1882.

Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report of the sealing business at the Seal Islands of Alaska, for the year ended July 20, 18'^2.

The mortality upon this island since January 1, 1882, has been greater than for the same time in any year since the lease to the Alaska Commercial Company. Thirty-six deaths have taken place, of which 13 were adult males, 9 adult females, and 14 were children. Pneumonia and consumption are the principal fatal diseases. The people are irregular in their habits, careless in exposing themselves to the elements, do not have good nursing and attention while sick, and appear to be reckless and fearless of death.

There has been no manufacturing or drinking of quass by the natives since I arrived here, in May. The prohibition of the sale of sugar, except for the sick, seems to have suppressed this evil, which has heretofore been a curse to the people.

The amount of money to be distributed to the natives of Saint Paul this year is $32,008.36. This has been equitably apportioned to the widows of sealers who have died since the end of the last season, and to the present working force, according to the merits of each individual. The natives are better paid, according to the amount of work they do, than any class of laborers in this or any other country.

The payment to each man amounts to more than the earnings of an ordinary laboring man at the East for a year, with constant employment. In addition, the Alaska Company furnish them with house, meat, fuel, salt, and schools free of charge. They are indeed highly favored, and, as wards of the Government, luxuriously provided for.

The amount to be distributed at Saint George is $8,000.

The long exemption from labor, from the end of one season to the beginning of the next, is detrimental to the natives. It is a sort of enforced idleness. They must of necessity employ their time unprofitably if not engaged in actual industry.  Many of the people are improvident. A few of them are economical, and have deposits at interest with the Alaska Commercial Company, aggregating on both islands on the 1st day of June, 1881, $23,087.81. Every person receiving a share in the distribution is required to keep to his credit enough to secure to his family a weekly payment of $3 until the next distribution is made. This insures to every family a living beyond the habits or improvidence of the husband.

The Alaska Commercial Company support the widows and orphans of those sealers who have died without leaving property.

The health of the natives on Saint George has been good ; only two deaths have occurred there in a year, and those were children.

Respectfully submitted.

Special Agent.

Hon. Charles J. Folger,
Secretary of the Treasury.


Office of the Special Agent, Treasury Department,
Saint Paul Island, Alaska, July 30, 1883.

Dear Sir : I submit the following as my annual report of the condition of affairs at the Seal Islands of Alaska for the year ending July 30, 1883:

The health of the natives on both islands has been unusually good ; no epidemic has occurred, and few deaths have taken place.

The population of Saint Paul, as by census taken on the 1st day of January, 1883, is as follows: 77 families; whole number of actual residents, 231.

Males Females
Adults 23Adults 32
Youths 18 Youths 22
Infants 3 Infants 6
Total 44 Total 60

The conduct of the people has been exceptionally good since my last report. There has been no making or drinking of quass, so far as 1 am informed, and no case of intoxication has come to my knowledge. This is undoubtedly the result of stopping the sale of sugar except in cases of sickness and upon the order of the physician in charge. The people are very orderly and peaceable. There has been no disturbance of any kind, except in one instance, hereafter mentioned. They dress and live well, and imitate the Americans in that respect to a large degree. They have been obedient to my orders and are easily controlled. They are but grown children in many respects, and at times need moderate punishment. All that is necessary to control them is firmness and uniformity of discipline.

Respectfully yours.

Hon. Charles J. Folger,
Secretary of the Treasury, Washington, D. C.

Special Agent, Seal Islands.

Office of Special Agent, Treasury Department,
Saint Paul Island, July 31, 1884.

Sir : I have the honor to submit to you my annual report of the condition of affairs at the Seal Islands, Alaska, for the year ended July 30, 1884, as follows : The census of Saint Paul, taken January 1, 1884, shows:

Total number of natives belonging to the island 219
Residents of other islands visiting here 11
Total 230

 Composed of 99 males and 131 females.

The census of Saint George, taken January 1, 1884, shows :

Total number of native inhabitants. 111 ; composed of 47 males and 64 females.

The school maintained on Saint Paul during the past year has been more than usually prosperous under the guidance of a new teacher. The number of pupils registered 54, and the average daily attendance for eight months, 51.59. In this we challenge comparison with the schools of an enlightened civilization.

Very respectfully, yours,

Treasury Agent, Seal Islands.

Hon. Charles J. Folger,
Secretary of the Treasury, Washington, P. C.


Office of Special Agent, Treasury Department,
Saint Paul Island, Alaska, June -- , 1885.

Sir : * * * The school has been well kept, and the attendance equal to any in the United States, in proportion to the number of scholars. There has not been a single unexcused absence.

The system of fines for being absent which I inaugurated two years ago has proved successful.

I have not realized a single fine for non-attendance during the past year.

The percentage of attendance for eight months is 98 -- very good for half-civilized children ; fully equal to any civilized.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

Treasury Agent, Seal Islands.

Hon. Daniel Manning,
Secretary of the Treasury, Washington, D. C.




Exploration on the Upper Yukon River by Rev. Vincent C. Sims, of the Church Missionary Society (Episcopal) of England.

Rampart House, Mackenzie River District,
Northwestern Territory, Canada, November 23, 1883.

My Dear Mr. : When 1 last wrote 1 was at Peel River, but about a month after, I came down here to await the breaking up of the river. While here I was very busy with the Indians, who were coming in from all directions with their spring fur hunts. At that time of the year there is no night here (in the summer the sun doesn't set at all), and if I had wished I could have had plenty of visitors at midnight, as 'most of the Indians are up then, preferring to sleep in the day. I left on June 15 and returned August 25. Three Indians accompanied me, and we traveled in a bark canoe. Our course lay down the Porcupine River, and as the current is strong we went along quickly. On the way down I came upon a party of Indians from the Ramparts, and spent a couple of days with them. I could not stay longer, as provisions were scarce, 80 off we went again. The Porcupine becomes a good-sized stream as it nears the Yukon, and there is some pretty scenery on its banks. But it is at the junction of the Porcupine with the Yukon that the finest view is to be obtained -- such an immense body of water -- it was really grand. A little paddling up-stream brought us to old Fort Yukon, once a post of the Hudson Bay Company, but abandoned by them when Alaska became a part of the United States. Most of the buildings are still standing and are partly occupied by Sanyoolyi, the chief of the Yukon Indians. This old man is a famous chief in these parts, and he is held in great awe by the Indians. His fame, I am sorry to say, is not good ; he has taken several lives, and as he is a very powerful man and exceedingly passionate, the Indians fear lest he shall do so again. He has several wives and a large family, but I am thankful to say that the sons do not take after their father; indeed I have real hopes that one or two of them are sincere Christians.

The old chief gave us a most gracious reception, and of course we feasted, partly at my expense, though. I soon saw, however, that we couldn't stay there -- the salmon had not commenced to come, geese and ducks were scarce, no moose had been killed, so that provisions were scarce.

While there, however, there was plenty to do. The Indians crowded round to be taught, and to buy books, and what I saw of these people made me wish that I could stop longer with them. However, that was impossible, so the next day we resumed our journey. We had now four days' hard paddling up-stream against a strong current before we should see the next band of Indians.

It was pretty stiff work, although we kept out of the main stream as much as possible, keeping along close to the shore. It wasn't always very safe either. Sometimes we would be creeping under high banks undermined by the water, which "would every now and then fall in with a tremendous crash, or perhaps we would be paddling along lines of fallen wood, against which the strong current would threaten every moment to dash us. Once or twice we knocked a big hole in the canoe, but happily for us we were at places where we could get ashore ; otherwise the consequences might have been more serious.

Provisions were not over-abundant, but we were never without a meal ; the boys always managed to kill something, chiefly ducks and geese, though both of these were unusually scarce. Sometimes we were putting to shore with little or nothing for supper and breakfast, when all at once a few geese would start up close by, and our stock of provisions would be replenished for another meal or two. And it is very noticeable that, after we reached the Indians and were able to get fish and meat from them, we hardly ever saw a goose or duck. God's faithfulness made me feel ashamed of my unbelief, for although I had told the boys that we were on God's work and He wouldn't let us want, I must confess that I didn't always feel so confident. On our fourth day we reached the Upper Ramparts, which is the name given to the mountains among which the river runs, and which afford some very beautiful scenery sometimes. At this place we came upon another band of Indians, who welcomed us with firing off guns and plenty of hand-shaking. Scarcity of food prevented us stopping more than a couple of nights. They had enough to provision us to the next band of Indians, but not enough to keep us there any time. But they worked me well while I was with them, and I was cheered by the desire they manifested for instruction. The head man of the band was the eldest son of Sanyoolyi, and he had followed his father's example and taken two wives. I spoke to him about it, and he confessed that he was wrong, and before I left it was settled that one of his wives should leave him. On starting off again we were accompanied by some Indians in their canoes, and I may mention here that two of these Indians continued with us during the rest of our journey up the river, traveling with us at least 300 miles in order that they might get more instruction. Three days up-stream brought us to a large band of Han Kuitchiu (River Indians), or, as they are sometimes called, Gens des Fous, a name of which they are not proud, and which they might, with some reason, plead that they don't deserve.

These were the first Indians I have seen in this part of the country who live in houses; I think, however, they only do this in the summer, as in the winter they are generally on the move. They gave me a warm welcome, provided me with a large tent capable of containing a good number of people, and crowded round me for their first lesson. From this time until ten days later, when I left them, I did nothing but teach from morning till night. Morning and evening prayers were conducted, the intervening time being occupied by school. I should weary you if I entered into details. Suffice it to say that almost all seemed most eager to learn, and there were some in particular who gave me good hopes that a real work of grace was going on in their hearts.

I would hear them singing hymns when I went to sleep, and I would hear them again when I awoke in the morning. Whether they were at it all night I can't say; I only know that sometimes when I woke up in the night singing would be going on still."

The salmon were now beginning to come, but I fear my teaching sadly interfered with the fishing, and many a salmon I think passed that spot in safety because the minister was on the bank teaching. It was almost amusing sometimes to watch the struggle evidently going on in the Indian's mind. He wanted to fish, but he saw others being taught, and he wanted to learn too, and often the temptation would be too strong, and the net would give place to the book. '

Three days' journey up the river brought us to another band of the Han Kuitchin, and with these I remained a week. My experience here was the same as that given above -- they gave me no rest, and I could only get it by running into the woods and hiding myself, and then the mosquitoes visited me.

I was not very sorry when we started again, for I needed a little rest. It was four days' journey to the next Indians, and on the way we were surprised to meet a survey party,* sent out by the United States Government, coming down the river on a raft. They were as surprised to see me as I was to see them, and plied me with questions about the country, which, I am afraid, I was not enlightened enough to answer very correctly.

I suppose one result of their visit will be a new map of the country, or at all events of the Yukon, which is much needed, for the present ones are by no means correct.

Two days after, we arrived at Fort Reliance, and found assembled there the largest band of Indians we had yet met. They were also the wildest, and have the reputation of being very troublesome sometimes with the fur traders. They treated me well enough, however, and during the fortnight I staid among them I saw enough to give me a very hopeful view of the progress of the work among them. I was constantly employed teaching them, and some of them made very rapid progress while I was there. Some of them were very impatient, and thought I did not teach them enough, and sometimes when I was at my meals, or trying to get a little rest, a head would be poked in and " Minister, come and teach us," would be the cry. But I was forced to be idle sometimes, for I was really ill part of the time, and I think if I had had much more of it I should have brought on a severe attack of illness. But for all that, although it was hard, it was a very happy work; the field was white unto the harvest, and I thank God that I was privileged to enter in and do a little for Him.

I haven't dwelt much upon the dark side, perhaps because I experienced so much of the bright. But of course there is a dark side, which only makes it more necessary that the Gospel should be taken to them. The state of morals is very bad, especially among the women, and they have great faith in "medicine-making." They fear their medicine men, who take advantage of their superstition and rob them right and left.

These Indians are called the Trodh tsik Knitchin, and I think their country lies within the British boundary line, which is close by Fort Reliance.

There were Indians from other tribes also there, .some from above and others who had come across country from the Tanana River. They had never seen a minister of the Gospel before, and they begged me most earnestly to go back with them to teach their people. One (a chief) said, " They were not pleased : God did not care for them or He would have sent a minister to them." I told him that God cared for them very much, and had told His people to send ministers everywhere to teach people, but that they had not obeyed Him. Now one bad come to them, and I promised that next year, if possible, I would visit their country. I hope (D. v.) to do so next summer, and by- the time you get this I suppose I shall be thinking of turning my face home- ward again.

* Lieut. F. Schwatka, U. S. A.

While with the Trodh tsik Kuitchin I met a Mr. Carr, from Arizona, a nephew of General Carr, who I believe holds a command somewhere among the Apaches. He bad spent the winter in the country, and was now wanting to get out. I was glad to have a white companion again, and we got on well together.

I was waiting for the steamer which comes up every year to trade with the Indians, and I hoped to go further up the river in her, but she didn't turn up, so we went down to meet her, and found that an accident had happened to the machinery, and she could proceed no further. Mr. McQuesten, the agent of the Alaska Commercial Company, received me most kindly, and (damages having been repaired as far as possible) gave me a passage down to Fort Yukon, so that that part of the journey was accomplished in a decidedly comfortable way.

We parted at the Yukon, and we once more took to the canoe, and commenced our return journey up the Porcupine. We encountered much bad weather, which delayed us a great deal, so that it was our tenth day before we arrived at the Ramparts, thankful to God that we had been brought in safety to the end of our journey. We had traversed altogether a little more than 1,000 miles; baptisms, 115, chiefly children, next year I intend (D. V.) to go down to Nuklukahyet, see the Indians there, go up the Tanana River, and from thence cross the country to the Yukon. I am anxious to see the Indians at Nuklukahyet. Archdeacon McDonald previously visited them, and they wish for another visit very much.



[Diary of Rev. J. A. H. Hartmann ]


April 14, 1884. -- I left New Fairfield, Canada, for Bethlehem, having been invited to consult with the directors of the Society of the United Brethren for Propagating the Gospel among the Heathen as to proposed expedition to Alaska.

J})7'il 15. -- Very early in the morning I arrived at Bethlehem, and was kindly entertained at the house of Brother Edm. de Schweinitz. In the evening there was a meeting of the board. Brother Weinland and myself were provided with ample funds for the journey proposed to us, and received leave to act as circumstances might require. Our outfit was to be procured at San Francisco. The purchase of photographic apparatus was also sanctioned.

April 16. -- In the evening there was a farewell meeting in the large church, at which the claims of Alaska were brought forward. At this service there also took place the ordination of Brother John Killbuck, who is to supply my place at New Fairfield during my absence. 

April 27, Sunday. -- We arrived in San Francisco in the morning; put up at the Russ House, and went to a Congregational church in the evening.

April 28. -- After breakfast, I went in search of Captain Healy of the United States revenue cutter Corwin. After some inquiries at the Government buildings, I went on board, but the captain was ashore. I found him at last in the Merchants' Exchange, and learned that the vessel was to sail on the 3d of May. We purchased part of our outfit, rubber boots, coats, and blankets, rifle, shot-gun, and fishing tackle.

April 29. -- After breakfast we went on board the Corwin, and saw the captain again. We then procured canned provisions for Alaska; also an aneroid barometer, a thermometer, telescope, blankets, printed cotton, a tent, an ax, hatchet, and saw.

May 2. -- Through the Lord's mercy I was directed by Captain Healy to the Alaska Commercial Company. I told Mr. Sloss, one of the partners, that the object of our visit to Alaska is to prepare the way for preaching the Gospel to the Eskimos. He seamed favorably impressed with the undertaking, and we felt his sympathy was with us. The company gave us a letter of introduction to Mr. Newman, of Unalashka, asking him to render us all the assistance in his power. Before leaving San Francisco, we deposited with them our return ticket and surplus money, with directions to send them to the Bethlehem Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in case it were the Lord's will that we should not return. Since we had entered into negotiations with this company, I will just mention a few details concerning them. The Alaska Commercial Company is at present all-powerful in Alaskan waters, and almost monopolizes the fur trade of that country. They have three main stations, Unalashka, Saint Michael's, and Kadiak, and also the Seal Islands. Their traders on the Aleutian Islands and at the mainland stations of Nushagak, Togiak, and Kuskokwim are supplied with goods for trading from Unalashka, those in the south of the peninsula from Kadiak, and those in the Yukon district from Saint Michael's. The large steamer, St. Paul, 1,000 tons burden, sails between Unalashka, Saint Michael's, and the Seal Islands.

The smaller steamer Dora and the schooner Matthew Turner are principally used in carrying goods to and from San Francisco and Unalashka to the mainland. On the River Kuskokwim there are three stations, Mumtrekhlagamute, Kolmakovsky, and Yenizali. From the above it – will be seen that the facilities for carrying supplies to a mission on the Kuskokwim are good and certain. Indeed, our most serious difficulties were at once removed by our becoming acquainted with the Alaska Commercial Company, one of these being the doubt whether we should be able to reach the mainland at all. How differently matters turned out! We had no idea of having such facilities and comforts during our journey.

May 3. -- Feeling much encouraged we prepared to embark in the Corwin, again committing ourselves into the Lord's hands for protection, help, and guidance. At 10 a. m. we were on board the steamer. It was a tine day, and the city and harbor looked beautiful. We found it difficult to get about our deck as it was full of coal bags on which we had to walk. There were four boats and a little steam-launch on hoard. At 1 p. m. the anchor was weighed and we were under steam. The United States cutter Rush accompanied us as far as the "Golden Gate," as the entrance of the harbor is called. As we steamed alongside one another an artist took a photograph of the Corwin, which the instantaneous process rendered quite possible. Near the "Golden Gate" the water was very rough. Before leaving us, the Rush crossed our bows twice, giving a parking salute each time, then returned to harbor, while the Corwin steamed against a strong northwest trade-wind. As we proceeded, the uncomfortable sensations preceding sea-sickness crept upon me in spite of my keeping on deck. Our berths were made up in the captain's cabin, occupying the stern of the – vessel. A board was fastened in front of the broad sofa, and thus a comfortable bed was formed. We took our meals with the captain. I was glad to lie down towards evening, being overcome by sea-sickness.

May 6, Tuesday. -- During the night, a fair wind sprang up, and we were going at 9 knots an hour I was still sick, though a little easier. Brother Weinland seemed to have got over the worst. The officers, crew, and three passengers, the captain's son, Brother Weinland, and myself, number in all forty-five persons. Among the crew are five Chinamen who act as cooks and stewards. There is no woman on board.

May 7, Wednesday. -- I went on deck this morning, and kept there all day. I had still no appetite. It was a fine day, a rolling sea against us and no wind. The pitching being considerable, I was in a poor condition, though they said it was the finest passage and weather they had had for a long time. Brother Weinland seems quite well.

May 8, Thursday. -- Fair wind all day ; going well ahead ; a little rain in the morning. The Corwin is a stout, well-built boat, with neat, compact engines. I enjoyed sitting in the engine-room, where it was warm. I felt thankful to the Lord, who has graciously helped us thus far; may we never give up our trust in Him.

May 9, Friday. -- We are about halfway to Unalashka. I feel more comfortable today than of any of my former voyages. After supper we had our first lengthy conversation with the captain. As regards the natives in Alaska, he thinks we shall not accomplish much ; but I told him that our mission to the natives is a work of faith, and that the Saviour who gave the command to go and preach the Gospel to every creature will also help His servants to obey it. He says there are from thirty to sixty vessels in Alaska waters during the summer. He thought the possibilities of getting from Unalashka to the mainland were uncertain, and we might have to wait till midsummer.

May 11. -- A Sunday at sea. but no religious service. A strong wind arose and the vessel began to pitch and roll terribly. The captain was up all night; I was awake too. The motion of the vessel was sometimes so sudden and violent that I was not surprised to hear the captain exclaim, " How she kicks!" It was more like a kicking than anything else.

May 15, Thursday. -- Rose with an appetite at last, ate some breakfast, and felt better. A fine breeze springing up from the south we made good progress. The captain says we shall see land about 4 or b p. m. I remained on deck most of the day and had a slight enjoyment of sea voyaging. How soon one forgets the troubles of sea-sickness! Land ahead about 4 p. m. The hope was entertained that we might reach Unalashka at a late hour of the night, but the wind slackening and turning against us, it became doubtful. The shore was almost enveloped in mist, but as we drew rear it cleared off, and we could see the bold, picturesque, snow-clad mountains. We were now in the Akutan Pass, the tide flowing strongly in with us.

Unalashka, Aleutian Islands, May 16 to 30. -- We have entered the pretty little harbor, landlocked, with narrow entrance and deep water.

Our letter of introduction from the company at San Francisco proved very useful. W^e were received kindly by their friendly and polite agents, with whom we had pleasant intercourse during our whole stay in the island. Our baggage was put into one of the storehouses. The quarters given us in the late office of the defunct Western Fur Trading Company consisted of two comfortable rooms warmed by a stove, and contained bedding, furniture, and fuel. Thither we conveyed our most necessary articles, including the photographic apparatus. We called our lodgings " Providence" ; they were only a few minutes' walk from the company's boarding-house where we took our meals with their agents and employees, but we little dreamed that we were being entertained gratis, whilst we had pleasant converse with those who had visited and could tell us a good deal about the places and people most interesting to us. Mr. Applegate, who had visited the Nushagak and Togiak Rivers last year, and found the natives peaceable and inoffensive, gave us a map of those districts. Mr. Conlin spoke of the country 600 miles up the Yukon River as very healthy.

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The absence of the steamer Dora with Mr. Newman, the head agent, on board, detained us at Unalashka for some time, but we made it our constant business here, as all through our journey, to seek guidance and help from the Lord. Our prayer was that He would so influence the men to whom we must apply that their counsel might result in our doing His will and not our own. Though no advance was made for some days towards our getting to the mainland, we waited patiently, nothing doubting. Yet the time began to hang heavily, for we longed to be doing our Master's work. At length, on the 24th, a steamer hove in sight, which proved to be the Dora returning from the islands. We were now introduced to Mr. Newman, and consulted him as to our best way of proceeding on our journey. He proposed that we should go to Nushagak in the Dora, and directed us to Mr. Clarke there for further information. We therefore awaited the departure of that vessel, and meanwhile busied ourselves with various preparations.

May 30, Friday. -- We received a sudden notice that the Dora would start for Nushagak, or Fort Alexander, at 2 p. m. We finished our letters in haste, and packed up our things, forgetting the poles of our tent. Mr. Newman advised us to get light rubber coats in imitation of the native kamlika. All the employees from the office and many others bade us farewell as we embarked on the Dora. We had a number of workmen, coopers, and a carpenter, and some native women on board ; the latter were to be employed at Nushagak in cleaning the salmon for salting. Mr. Newman very kindly shipped a bidarka and another boat for us. The day was most beautifully bright and sunny, and the bay quite calm. The wind being in our favor, the steam was shut off and the sails set. The motion of the vessel was only slight, and, though Brother Weinland was sick, I was well enough to enjoy the lovely evening and admire the magnificent scenery of the island till it disappeared from our view. I then retired to rest, thanking the Lord for all his mercy and kindness to us.

May 31, Saturday. -- We passed the island Unimak, with its high mountains enveloped in clouds.

June 1, Whitsunday. -- We were left to ourselves to keep holy the Sabbath day before the Lord. The contemplation of Zech. ix, 10, was sweet and encouraging. "He shall speak peace unto the heathen; and His definition shall be from sea to sea, and from the river to the ends of the earth." In conversation with the captain as to the establishment of a mission among the natives on the mainland, he advised the Kuskokwim, as there would be facilities of communication. The steamer Dora goes up the river every spring, and is met by other boats, which take the goods for the traders a distance of about 500 miles up the river. By means of a good sailing boat we could command the river and perhaps the island Nunivak, and the opposite coast. We prayed the Lord to make known to us His will, and to give us wisdom and good understanding in the selection of a solace. At 7 p. m. we neared Cape Constantine. The sea was smooth as glass, and immense flocks of sea-fowl were seen on the surface. At ten the anchor was dropped, the captain fearing to enter the dangerous waters of the Nushagak Bay before daybreak.

June 2, Monday. -- When we arose we found the ship steaming carefully along in sight of Cape Constantine. The land is very low, but mountains still covered with snow rose inland, and towards Togiak Bay. About 8 a. m. two natives approached in their kayaks. They came on board, the kayaks being hauled up also. One was the pilot on the look-out for the Dora, as there are some difficult channels to get through before reaching her anchorage at Fort Alexander. Here we arrived at half-past two, when the anchor was dropped in deep water a mile and a half distant from the shore.

By the Lord's help and goodness another stage of our journey was safely accomplished.  About 3 p. m. Mr. Clarke, the company's agent, and two natives arrived in a three-holed bidarka. The Greek priest also came on board, and we noticed that the native women from Unalashka saluted him by kissing his hand, extended for that purpose. We were introduced to him, Mr. Clarke acting as our interpreter. Nushagak, or Fort Alexander, lies on the left bank of the river, which is 3 or 4 miles wide here, and at high tide presents a very fine appearance, but at low water shows large mud banks. The salmon season had just begun. A fine specimen was brought on board by the natives, measuring three feet six inches, and we had the pleasure of tasting this magnificent fish. Nushagak is small, though the most important place between the Yukon and the Alaskan Peninsula. It is built on the side of a rather steep acclivity. The company's offices and the traders' dwellings are on the lower terrace, reached by fifteen steps, seventy more steps leading to the upper terrace with the Greek church, and the houses of the priest and deacon. To right and left on the side of the hill nestle the earth huts of the natives. Opposite Nushagak to the west, numerous mountains rise steep and abrupt from a level plain stretching 10 to 30 miles from the river, and are utterly devoid of timber. Among them are some picturesque lakes ; one of them, Abakuakik, is well studded with beautiful pine-covered islands.

June 3, Thursday. -- The Dora steamed up the river a distance of 7 miles, Mr. Clarke acting as pilot. Here a shed for salting and barreling salmon was to be put up and a house for the men, who had come from Unalashka with the timber. Here I made the acquaintance of the famous Eskimo dogs. They are very handsome and much tamer than those in Labrador, indeed they came to be stroked and petted.

We were greatly interested in watching the landing of the timber for the shed. Strong ropes were stretched from the vessel to the shore, by means of which the boats were pulled to and fro. The shed was soon erected. I noticed that the natives could carry heavy weights. Nearly all were dressed in coats made of the skins of squirrels. The men crop their black hair in various ways, some leaving a crown of longer hair. The women's hair was neglected and stunted in its growth. The young people are very rosy. The race is comparatively diminutive, the women particularly so.

June 4, Friday. -- A beautiful, warm day. We had an encouraging text: " Unto the upright there ariseth light in the darkness" (Psalm exii. 4). O, Lord, let light arise to us! Unloading began very early, all hands at work. Mr. Clarke came in his boat and after dinner we sailed with him back to Nushagak. The banks are a deep, soft mud, so boards were laid from the boat to the shore in order to land. Presently Mr. Clarke accompanied us on a visit to the Greek priest, who was dressed in his black gown. He was very friendly and communicative, and readily replied to all questions. He claims the Nushagak and Togiak districts as his parish, and showed us that according to his books he has 2.476 communicants. The natives are required to express belief in the teaching of the Greek Church, the Holy Trinity, and in Christ as the Saviour of mankind. Then they are baptized and immediately after confirmed and become communicant member's. Their children are also baptized, and supposed to be afterwards taught. At our request he took us to the church and showed and explained everything: the altar with the silken cloth, consecrated by the bishop, on which lay the Gospels; the communion service, from which the bread and wine mixed together are given in a spoon ; and pictures representing Christ and some of the saints. The church is a neat building, the roof painted green as usual. In the course of conversation he suggested to us the Kuskokwim, as an unoccupied field. Our prayer to the Lord had frequently been that He would direct us in the right way by the men and means he chose. So we took it as coming from Him that the Greek priest pointed out that river, and came to the conclusion to abandon all search for a suitable locality in the districts occupied by the Greek Church. We determined to explore the Kuskokwim as far up the river as it was advisable, and on our return to see Good News Bay, unless the Lord should direct us otherwise. On re-entering the boat, Alexy, a little man, carried me through the mud, and when he was setting me down I nearly lost my balance, narrowly escaping a cold mud and water bath. We reached the vessel at half-past nine. The water being as smooth as glass, we could see white whales and salmon going up the river.

June b, Thursday. --I commenced to gather words and expressions such as we were most likely to use later on, when we shall probably travel entirely in the company of the natives. It is slow and difficult work. There seems to be a great deal of fish here. The natives catch them in small dip-nets close to the bank of the river. A king salmon, brought on board by a native, measured 3 feet 10 inches in length, and 36 inches round the thickest part of the body, and weighed 41 pounds. The weather continues very fine, and it is daylight till half-past 10 p. m.

June 6, Friday. -- They loaded small logs from the pine forests for Togiak. Amongst other photographs I took one of the Greek priest and his deacons, at the former's request. In acknowledgment he made me a present of an ivory inkstand, ruler, and penholder, made by a native from the teeth of a walrus. Mr. Clarke read us a letter he had written to the company's agent, Mr. Zipri, on the Kuskokwim, commending us to his care and soliciting his aid in furthering the work we have in hand. So the Lord provides for us. We returned to our steamer about half-past 9, having had to wait for the tide. It was the first time we had tried the bidarkas ; we like them very much.

June 7, Saturday. -- Brother Weinland and I unpacked our trunks, selecting and making into parcels only such things as would be necessary for our journey up the Kuskokwim. We left the remainder of our goods in Mr. Clarke's care till our return.

June 8, Sunday. -- After breakfast we both went ashore and attended the Greek church, having previously notified our intention to the priest. On entering the building we were at once conducted to two chairs placed within the altar railing. We had a good view of all that was going on, though we did not get a clear insight into the long and elaborate service, which lasted nearly three hours. The priest and deacons wore gorgeous robes of a fellow color, in which gold threads were woven. The sacrament of the Lord's Supper was administered to about twenty-five children ; they – were held up and the priest put a mixture of bread and wine, or bread and water, into their mouths with a spoon. Some of the little mouths had to be opened to receive it. At the conclusion of the service, all came forward and kissed a crucifix presented to them by the priest, some also kissing his hands. I had a lengthy conversation with Mr. Clarke, who wished us every success in our undertaking ; he could not promise us much pleasure, but rather hardships. Hitherto, we have had no trouble or privations, being well cared for and assisted by the company and their agents. We looked to the Lord for further help and guidance. We returned to our ship at half-past 9.

June 9, Monday. -- At 3 p. m. we started for Igagik, on the Alaskan peninsula. There Mr. Clarke wished to establish anew fishing station under the management of a half-breed, Paul. This Paul is the only native we met who could speak English. He was accompanied by his wife and three native assistants. Mr. Clarke shipped two bidarkas for our use, and instructed Alexy', a native, to go to Togiak and secure four natives to go with US to the Kuskokwim, and bring us back to Nusliagak in the bidarkas. The trip to Igagik was most pleasant, sea calm, and weather tine. As before, our careful captain cast anchor about four or five miles off the mouth of the Igagik River. One of the ship's boats and Paul's large open boat were sufficient for the landing of the goods. The coast as viewed from the vessel is low, with gravely beach, and high mountains rising inland. On the return of the boats the vessel made for the Togiak, nearing and rounding Cape Constantine.

June 10, Tuesday. -- Got up at seven after a good night's rest. We were steaming up the Togiak Bay, and passing a number of small islets, called the " Walrus Islands," some of which rise abruptly out of the sea. Looking up towards the mountains that shut in the valley of the Togiak, I could not help wishing we could ascend that river. The scenery is beautiful, quite different from the Nushagak. The coast is gravely and rocky; mountains, sloping down to the water's edge, line the left shore of the bay. The water of the river is splendidly clear. Casting anchor at 7 a. m. a long – way from the station, we soon saw a fleet of kayaks bringing the natives to the vessel. Seeing one old man cross himself three times, we were led to suppose that they belonged to the Greek Church. Mr. Clarke's sub-agent also came on board. We went ashore to see the station. It is ten miles from the village Togiakamute, in a lonely place, on high rocky banks, and consists of two small log houses; one is used by the trader for storing his furs, skins, an<l walrus teeth; the other as a magazine for goods for trading purposes. The annual visit of the steamer is quite an event here; so about 100 natives had congregated, some to carry the goods and building materials for a new store-house up the steep banks, others no doubt from curiosity. It was a fine day, the sun shining brightly, and the mosquitoes were very troublesome. Whilst Mr. Anderson, the carpenter, put up the building, I sat down by some natives, and tried to become acquainted with some of their words. Soon a great number were squatting all around me. They willingly repeated the words over and over till I could catch them properly, and I managed to learn the names of the different parts of the body. They told me the language used on the Kuskokwim and Yukon is the same as theirs. I amused them by allowing them to look through the photographic camera. They observe closely, and seemed to be interested in what they saw. I concluded that they are teachable and willing to be led. Some of the men seemed rather tall for Eskimos, and some of the women had two lines of tattoo marks from the corner of the under lip reaching to the chin: all looked dirty.

June 11, Wednesday. -- Three of the men whom Alexy had secured to go with us to the Kuskokwim drew back, but he promised to do his best for us before 3 p. m., when the vessel would start. The time drew near, but no natives had appeared, and we were in somewhat of a dilemma. Just at the last, however, an old man and three young ones made their appearance.

Old Washili had been to the Kuskokwim before, and knew the river well. The others were Chimeyune, Washili the younger, and Nicholaiou.

Mr. Anderson pronounced them a line crew, and such they proved. We left about 4 p. m., and a mist which rather hindered our progress soon cleared. The natives, though rather phlegmatic on shore, are the reverse in their kayaks, and it was amusing to watch them trying to keep up with the steamer. Passing the treeless island, Hegemeister, we retired To rest before the ship got abreast of Cape Pierce, thanking the Lord for all His mercies to us.

June 12, Thursday. -- We are now at length in the mouth of the River Kuskokwim. Thus far the Lord has helped us. "Bless the Lord, O my soul !" "He that hath helped thee hitherto, will help thee all thy journey through." We passed Cape Newenham in the early morning. Mountains were to be seen on the right all along the shore, but no land is yet visible to the left. The entrance of Good News Bay is marked by a hill called the Sugar Loaf. We have begun to put our things into small compass, so as easily to be stowed away in the bottom of the boat. The sailors are taking soundings, and find that we are still in deep water. Navigation is here somewhat dangerous, as there is an absence of all shoal-marks or buoys. The captain is carefully watching the results of the soundings, which gradually indicate a decrease in depth. When about 2.30 p. m. the lead showed a depth of only five fathoms, the captain feared to proceed, and cast anchor 7 or 8 miles from the low bank of the river. Scanning the distant shores on the look-out for the traders, who always come down in good time to meet the vessel, we were not long kept in suspense. Soon four boats were seen to leave the shore, and in an hour's time they reached the vessel. They were manned by native oarsmen, under the command of the Alaska Commercial Company's agents, Messrs. Zipri and Lind. These gentlemen, although Finns, speak English well. The two other agents were Nicolai Dormentoff, a Russian, who had been resident in the country for about thirty years, and Nicolai Komolkoshen, a civilized Eskimo. The two latter are not acquainted with English. The traders had brought furs for the company, and took on board the stores for conveyance up the river. We were courteously received by them, having been recommended to their care and hospitality by Mr. Clarke. Mr." Zipri, who was on his way to San Francisco, looked favorably upon our enterprise, and promised assistance. He is taking with him a half-breed to receive education in that city.

The steam crane speedily placed the stores and our own baggage on board the large, open skin boats, of from six to eleven tons burden. The boats then left the ship, and we followed in our three-holed bidarkas, after finishing our letters. At 8 p. m. we bade farewell to our good captain and his crew, and stepped into our boats. Brother Weinland and myself .seated ourselves in the center holes of the bidarkas, the two others being occupied by the native oarsmen. A strange feeling came over me, when, parting from the company of our friends, we sailed alone over this wide expanse of water in our frail skin boats. The larger boats, preceding us, served as our guides. A long twilight followed the sunset at 9.15 p. m. After rowing for three hours and a half we reached our first halting-place, and felt somewhat stiff and tired. This place, named Ishingackmute, occupies the site of a former Eskimo village, and is near the mouth of a small but deep river. Here the company has erected a wooden frame house for the reception of the traders' goods, previous to their conveyance up river. Twilight had not yet deepened into night by the time we had completed this first stage of our journey. The natives soon kindled a fire, and a midnight meal, consisting of broiled ham, Graham bread, and black tea, was prepared by the traders, who kindly considered us their guests during the whole of our travelings and sojournings with them. We had pitched our tent, but were invited by Mr. Lind to occupy the floor of the store-house in preference. A wolf's skin and bear's skin spread on the floor served as bed, and, using our coats as pillows, we covered ourselves with a blanket. Ere falling asleep, my thoughts wandered over the past, and I returned thanks to the Lord for the very gracious leadings which enabled us to travel up this river in company with the traders.

June 13, Friday. -- We got up at 9 a. m., feeling none the worse for having slept on 80 hard a bed. After breakfast I photographed the store-house, some natives, and an Eskimo's grave. It is customary here to bury above ground. The dead body is laid in a rude box made of logs of drift-wood, raised by other logs to a height of two or three feet above the ground, and covered with the same material to protect the remains from the dogs. All that belonged to the deceased is placed on or around his coffin, as the natives believe that if they keep any of the property of the departed they will be haunted by his spirit. This shows that these people believe-to some extent at least in a future existence. How I wished I could speak with the natives of the Lord Jesus, who is Himself the resurrection and the life! The boats put off once more for the remainder of the goods, returning towards evening, when it began to rain. Mr. Lind speaks Russian, and, as he employs a native interpreter, he is able to trade with the natives in an intelligent manner. For about forty or fifty squirrel skins the natives receive two skeins of netting twine. A land otter has about the same purchasing power.

June 14, Saturday. -- The natives began to reload the boats from the store-house. Nicolai Komolkoshen, the manager of the lower station, is a member of the Greek Church, and a man of good common sense, in all his habits more like a white man than an Eskimo. He speaks Russian very well, but knows little English, though he is anxious to learn it. The boy whom Mr. Zipri is taking with him to San Francisco is Nicolai's adopted son, and the father told us that if he could have had him educated here he would not have sent him to America. This shows the desirability of establishing a school.

Dinner at 3 p. m. consisted of duck soup and an abundance of eggs. There is no fear of our starving whilst with the traders. Nicolai's station, Mumtrekhlagamute, is about l00 miles from the Dora's anchorage, and the journey thither occupies three days.

June 15, Sunday. -- Owing to contrary north winds we were unable to resume our journey. Mr. Lind is very friendly and obliging, and would like to see us establish a school at Kolniakovsky. From him and his interpreter we gathered the following facts with regard to the beliefs and superstitions of the Eskimos. They know nothing of an Almighty Creator, but imagine that all things came spontaneously into being. They believe in a future life, but have no conception either of a heaven or a hell. They are afraid of the spirit of a deceased person (or, as they name it, his shadow), though they do not quite know how it can injure them.

The Eskimo knows when he is doing wrong. They do not believe in a Good Spirit, though they conceive the existence of an evil one. They think that such natural phenomena as thunder and lightning are due to the agency of some superior being. Any one carried off by sickness is said to die a natural death, whilst all cases of sudden, disease are attributed to the direct influence of medicine men, or Shamans, supposed to be endowed by the evil spirit with supernatural powers. The healing of a sick man, or the performance of some extraordinary feat, insures recognition as a Shaman. The Shaman, they say, can kill an Eskimo, but not a white man. In company with Mr. Lind we closed the day by reading I .John iv, and then offered fervent prayers to the Lord for the natives, a number of whom were present, watching our proceedings.

June 16, Monday. -- After breakfast we prepared to continue our journey, but were again prevented by the adverse winds. The country on the lower Kuskokwim is a flat waste, entirely destitute of trees and even of shrubs, covered only with a damp, spongy bed of moss or "tundra," from six inches to a foot in depth. The deposits of drift-wood, the only fuel here, show to what a height the river must occasionally rise above its ordinary level. The Eskimo villages are built close to the river, and must at such times suffer greatly from the floods. A dreary, dreary country!

At the halting-places on our journey the inhabitants of the native villages are provided by the agent with tea, sugar, and flour. They shoot large quantities of ducks, geese, and other water-fowls, and bring in numbers of eggs. Of these they receive their share. They consider the raw blubber of the white whale a delicacy. Their manner of eating it is certainly peculiar. Holding a knife in the right hand and a piece of blubber in the left, they fix their teeth firmly in the latter, and saw off a portion with the knife. One of their dishes consists of flour mixed with oil or grease. In partaking of this they employ either their fingers, or a chip of wood in lieu of a spoon. They appreciate spoons, however, when they are able to obtain them. The appearance of the uncivilized Eskimos is not prepossessing, as they neither wash themselves nor comb their hair. Their features are not amiss; a good many have thin mustaches, and rosy, well-shaped cheeks. They are of a lively temperament, fond of sports and games.

June 17, Tuesday. -- The night was cold and windy, and I was unable to keep myself warm. The morning was clear and cold, but the wind is still adverse. Time begins to hang heavy on our hands.

We tried to read aloud to the natives from the Eskimo Testament, as used in Labrador, but finding that they did not understand, we desisted, lest they should consider it a ceremony akin to those of the Greek Church. We long to tell them of the living Christ in living words.

Mr. Lind gave us a few more particulars about them. The men spend their time in hunting and fishing, leaving all other work to the women. The marriage tie lacks permanence. If a man tires of his wife, he leaves her and marries again. Some women thus have a number of husbands in succession. In some cases, however, the union is of long duration. The women are very intelligent, and those living at the stations have learned to perform the various household duties, and to practice personal neatness and cleanliness.

June 18, Wednesday. -- After a stay of five days at this first halting-place, we were at last able to proceed upon our way. At 2 a. m. all were aroused, and without waiting to take any refreshment, we set out to reach the next village before the turn of the tide. It was a clear, sharp morning, the sun had not yet risen ; and the crew, who, like ourselves, had not tasted food, had to row for a distance of eight miles. Feeling very cold, we each took an oar, and joined the men in pulling. At 7 a. m. we reached Kuskokwagamute, a village of about ten barrabaras, or native houses. On our landing, the natives brought us a quantity of salmon. Soon a good fire was kindled, and breakfast cooked. The rays of the sun presently increased in strength, and being warmed and refreshed, we endeavored to go to sleep, but were unable to do so on account of the mosquitoes. Some women came from the village, bringing with them a few articles for sale. Besides the two usual tattoo marks from the corners of the mouth to the chin, these women had a small hole in their lower lip, in which they placed their sewing needle when not in use.

A favorable wind springing up, we left our halting-place at 1 o'clock, and at 3 p. m. reached the village of Apokachamute, situated close to the mouth of a small but deep tributary of the Kuskokwim, and numbering about 150 inhabitants. A good many – women and children, standing at a little distance, watched us disembark and pitch our tents. Some of the children were plentifully adorned with beads. All were dressed in the usual parka, or skin coat. The men had two holes pierced near the corner of the lower lip, in which were inserted white ivory studs. Washili and Nicholaiou were here, having preceded us by a few days. We saw numbers of beautiful salmon lying on the bank, waiting to be dressed and dried.

Here we slept in our tent for the first time on a bed of long grass, covered with grass matting of native manufacture, two large india-rubber blankets, a wolf's skin or bear's skin, and a blanket. We covered ourselves with another plain blanket and one of india-rubber, and made our coats, *&,c., serve as our pillows. The tent afforded us protection not only against wind and weather, but also against the mosquitoes.

June 19, Thursday. -- We were called at 3 a. m., and after some slight refreshment were soon on our way again. At 8 o'clock we reached the small village of Togiarhazoriamute. The mosquitoes were here so troublesome that I stood in the smoke of the fire in the hope of escaping them. After breakfast the sun broke through the clouds, and a fair wind blowing, we started again for a long day's sail along the low green banks of the river. It was delightful traveling. Point after point was reached and left behind. The skin boats seemed to glide through the water. As we went on the river grew narrower, so that the opposite bank became distinctly visible. Towards evening we encamped at a distance of about a mile from the village of Lomavigamute. The river, which had hitherto been a broad unbroken stream, was now divided by numerous islands into many channels. The shores also were lined with a higher growth of under-wood, and thickets of small birch trees alternated with grassy or mossy banks. The tide was also sluggish.  Pitching our tents, we found the ground beneath the tundra frozen, so that we were unable to drive in our pegs. According, to our calculation we must have made a run of at least sixty miles. Although we both felt cold and chilly during the long day's sail, the Lord again graciously preserved us from all ill effects.

June 20, Friday. -- We were up at 6 a. m. After a cup of tea we started for Mumtrekhlagamute, the station of the Alaska Commercial Company nearest to the mouth of the river, and the residence of the native trader, Nicolai Komolkoshen. Again entering the broad part of the river, we sailed along swiftly between its many islands before a fine breeze. Away in the distance, to the left, there appeared a stretch of high land, for which we made. Before reaching it, we came abreast of the village of Napahaiagamute. Oft' this village we fell in with a number of Eskimos in their kayaks, fishing for salmon "with gill-nets.* Leaving another village, that of Napaskiagamute, to the right, and again rounding an island, we at length came in sight of the important station Mumtrekhlagamute. We were greatly cheered by the view of this station, situated on a high bank, with a background of pine forest. The text for the day was very encouraging and remarkable -- "God said unto Jacob, Arise, go up to Bethel, and dwell there, and make there an altar unto God that appeared unto thee." It seemed as though the Lord were now speaking to us in these words, and were thereby pointing out the place for our future operations amongst the Eskimos.

In spite of our being warmly clad, we felt the cold, and were glad to step on shore. Our approach was watched by a number of people and about ten dogs, which ran up and down the banks in a lively manner, giving us a hearty canine greeting. Eskimo dogs howl and do not bark. Our boats were soon safely moored, and on landing we were welcomed by Mrs. Nicolai, Mrs. Zipri, Mrs. Dormentoff, and other natives. We were soon comfortably housed, and invited to partake of a well-cooked meal and a very fair cup of coffee, all prepared by the Eskimo ladies. It was very pleasing to observe what an effect civilizing influences had produced upon these Eskimo women. They were simply but neatly dressed in European costume, presenting a clean and tidy appearance. They moved about so quickly and deftly, doing all they could to make us comfortable. We regretted our inability to converse with them! The station consists of two large, well-built log houses, the one serving as the lodging-house, the other as the store, together with a few smaller ones. There is also a "kashima," or Russian bath-house. The boats, being unladen, were hauled ashore, turned over, dried and oiled, to prepare them for the long journey up the river. Mr. Lind was present in the evening, when we again besought the Lord to bless and prosper our undertaking. Nicolai speaks Russian well, and is anxious to learn English, of which he knows enough to say: "School here, me A B C." We had very good beds made up for us on the floor, and slept well.

*As a rule, the Eskimos of Alaska use no hook and line, but either a gill-net or a trap. The gill-net s square, and constructed either of twine bought of the trader, or of leather straps cut from the tanned hide of some animal.

June 21, Saturday. -- After breakfast, we carried on a long parley with our crew, through Mr. Lind and Nicolai. They refused to go up the river to Kolmakovsky, and also demanded payment at the rate of fifty cents. After a long argument, in which old Washili warmly maintained his ground, Mr. Lind told them that if they "did not obey our orders to go up the river and were not content with twenty-five cents a day, they would get nothing at all. The natives then accepted our terms, which were more than the usual pay, nor had we any further trouble with them throughout the rest of our journey. We were most thankful for the kind assistance of the traders, for had we been alone we should have been most awkwardly situated.

This long parley over, Nicolai and our crew examined our bidarkas, and rejected one as unsafe for traveling purposes. It was left here in the care of old Washili to be covered with new skins, whilst we went forward to Kolmakovsky.

June 22, Sunday. -- We feel the want of Christian fellowship more on Sunday than on any other day, for here no distinction is made between the Lord's Day and any other.

There appear to us to be three alternatives in establishing a mission on this river. A missionary might be stationed either at a trading post or in a suitable locality at a little distance from a trading post; or, thirdly, in au Eskimo village.

The first of these methods appears to be the most practicable. In commencing – work at a trading post, we should have the immediate assistance of the traders, and their children would form the nucleus of a school. A number of Eskimos visiting the station for trading purposes, and bringing their children with them, would come within our reach, and might, by the influence of the trader, he induced to leave their children under our care. On account of the mendicant and uncleanly habits of the Eskimos the traders purposely establish their stations at some distance from their villages and allow none to settle in the immediate vicinity of the station. Were mission work commenced at a station, the traders would render our missionaries valuable assistance in the learning of the language.

Secondly, at a distance from a traders post, we might be more independent, but not having anything to offer for sale to the natives, it is questionable whether the latter would visit us, and whether they could be induced to leave their children with us. On the other hand, Eskimos, once converted and civilized, might, by the grace of God, be induced to make the mission station their home, and thus to form the nucleus of a congregation.

Thirdly, a settlement at or near an Eskimo village would certainly be most calculated to afford opportunities for constant intercourse with the natives -- a matter of great importance. The only drawback we see to this plan is the fact that the native villages are all situated in low, damp ground, and are thus exposed to the periodical inundations of the river.

Weighing all these considerations, we judge Mumtrekhlagamute to be certainly the most favorable place we have yet seen for the commencement of our mission.

June 23, Monday. -- To-day I photographed the station. It is situated at a bend of the river and on a bank, some 10 or 12 feet above high water. The tide here rises about 4 feet. The breadth of the stream at this bend of a right angle is considerable, and to the left of the village an unbroken expanse of water stretches eastward in a long vista. A small pine forest about half a mile behind the station extends a good way along the Kuskokwim. The high land down the river and beyond the pine forest is destitute of trees and shrubs, covered with tundra, and intersected by swamps and small lakes, which make a land journey in summer almost impossible. The surrounding country is dreary and monotonous, but can it be more so than the coast of Labrador, where our brethren commenced their labors of love more than a hundred years ago? If that country was suitable for missionary enterprise, surely this is much more so, as the natives are here far more numerous than in Labrador.

We are very desirous of proceeding on our way, but are obliged to wait the agent's time. How we wish we could speak with the natives, but, alas! we have as yet been able only to gather a few words and phrases. At 10.30 p. m. I read the 116th Psalm in small print with the aid of my glasses. I lay awake until 1 a. m., and even at that late, or rather early, hour the light seemed only a little dimmer than before.

June 25, Wednesday. -- During the night we heard the dogs making a great noise. On our inquiring the cause, Mr. Lind told us that Tetka, his half-blind interpreter, had been wrestling with another young native. And what had been the object of this struggle ? To obtain possession of the young man's wife ! It seems that if a native woman is agreeable to an exchange of husbands, the question of her possession is decided by a wrestling match between the two rivals, and the victor carries off the woman. The vanquished combatant does not appear to entertain the slightest feeling of anger or resentment against his more successful opponent. This custom shows bow little importance the Eskimos attach to the virtue of conjugal fidelity.

The traders, in doing business with the Eskimo, are obliged to allow them considerable credit. Some natives pay their debts honestly, whilst others do not. The traders, however, refuse to deal with those remiss in this respect until old debts are paid.

June 25, Wednesday. -- At 4 p. m. we left Mumtrekhlagamute for Kolmakovsky. The wind was at first favorable, but as the river soon made a sharp turn it blew directly in our faces, and our eight oarsmen had to exert themselves considerably. The banks were low and covered with pines, varying in height from 25 to 40 feet. The average breadth of the main channel is here about three-quarters of a mile. About 9 p. m. we landed, and, pitching our tent, found it the best protection against the troublesome mosquitoes.

June 26, Thursday. -- The wind favored our departure at 9 a. m., but as it soon died away we could only creep slowly along. The weather was beautiful, the sky cloudless, the heat tempered by a delicious breeze, and our journey up the stream would altogether have been most delightful had it not been for the annoyance caused by the mosquitoes. At 8 p. m. we reached the village of Kikkhlagamute, situated not far from the river, on the banks of a deep though narrow channel. A number of men met us on landing, saluting us with their usual "Tshamai, tshamai" (How do you do?), and shaking hands with us, thus giving us the first welcome of the kind we have received. We hire counted 50 birch-bark canoes, which on the upper part of the river take the place of the skin boats. We walked through the village, and were interested to observe the mementoes erected in memory of the departed. We regretted that this village, with its many children and its total population of some 216 inhabitants, was situated in such low, marshy ground. Had there been any high land in the neighborhood we should have considered it a favorable site for the establishment of a mission station.

June27, Friday. -- Leaving this place at 8 a.m., we made but slow progress during the forenoon, and stopped for dinner at a small Eskimo fishing station. Here we saw Nicolai's brother, who greatly resembles him, and also others of his relations. Proceeding on our journey, we fell in with a white man, Mr. Langtree, a miner, who had been up the river on a prospecting tour. He was the only white man we saw on the Kuskokwim, with the exception of Mr. Lind, the trader. Akiagamute was reached at 4 p. m. Nicolai, having accompanied us thus far, now left us, returning home in a three-holed bidarka. Although it was still early in the day, Mr. Lind decided to encamp here. It was a most lovely evening, the sun not setting until a quarter past 9. The river was as smooth as a mirror, not a breath of air stirring. Had it not been for the annoyance caused by the mosquitoes, we should thoroughly have enjoyed the contemplation of the peaceful scene around us.

June 28, Saturday. -- We were on our way again at 6 a. m. Iulukiak was reached by dinner-time, and towards evening we arrived at the village of Kivigalogamute, situated at the mouth of a river of the same name, not visible from our point. We halted at a place where a half-breed has established himself and carries on a fishing business. In the evening rain began to fall, the first of any consequence since we left Unalashka. I could not but notice how scattered and comparatively small is the population inhabiting the banks of this large river. A mission established at any point on the stream could only reach a few of the natives, but though the first beginnings may be small, the work will probably grow and prosper. The labor will be arduous, and the love of Christ can alone constrain brethren and sisters to undertake the task.

June 29, Sunday. -- The day was rainy, though a fair wind prevailed. We dined at Ugavik, or Ogavigamute, Mr. Lind having some business to transact there. The Lord's Day was not observed in any public manner. At this village some men, women, and children came towards me, holding their hands before them, laid one upon the other, palms upward, and looking me in the face, as if expecting to receive some gift. Not knowing what this act might mean I put my right hand upon theirs, and nodding, said "Tshamai." This seemed to satisfy them, for they presently withdrew. I learned afterwards from Mr. Lind that they are accustomed in this way to present themselves to the priest for his blessing, which consists in his making the sign of the cross upon them. This showed us that we were again in a region where the Greek Church has influence, and proves also that these people know nothing of denominational differences and creeds.

On the opposite bank of the river is a long stretch of high land, quite suitable for the site of a mission station. The village is one of the larger ones. Not far from here a portage is made to the Yukon, a distance of 60 miles. The mosquitoes had now disappeared, but wind and rain taking their place, our journey became most trying. We found our seat on the top of some bales a very cold one, and got rather wet in spite of all our precautions. I had to pray for help to endure the hardships and fatigues of the way. We camped for the night at Iookhlagamute.

June 30, Monday. -- Our rubber boots proved very serviceable in the wet weather prevalent again. The wind was favorable throughout the whole of the day, except at those points where the river made a bend. The boats were laden with goods almost to their utmost extent, and, perched on the top, we sat, or knelt, or squatted, leaning first on one side and then on the other, and now and then standing up, in order to give our limbs as much change as possible. Cold and shivering, and astonished that we were able to bare exposure to such inclement weather, we continued our journey, the Lord sustaining us. For a short distance it blew almost a gale, and the large square sail had to be reefed.

Landing amid wind and rain at Kalkhagamute, we cooked and ate our dinner among the dripping bushes in a low scrub close to the village. Then going with Mr. Lind into the village, we entered the kashima and warmed ourselves.

On our trip we were greatly amused by one of the natives, an oarsman in another boat. His only garment was an old, worn-out skin parka; and this being soaked through and through, and his hair dripping with wet, we called him the "water-rat" ; for he looked more like that than anything else. He is a good .specimen of a weather-beaten Eskimo, quite indifferent to the attacks of the mosquitoes in warm weather, as well as to wind and rain in wet. All the natives we met were very friendly, nor did we ever detect them in any attempt to steal; they seem to be an honest people.

July 1, Tuesday. -- Starting at 6 a. m., we reached Ookhogamnte after a run of three hours, and there halted for dinner. I entered one of the barrabaras, which are built like the kashima, but are smaller. If these places were kept clean they might be comfortable enough ; the inconvenience caused by the smoke might be obviated by the erection of an iron stove in the center, with a pipe passing through the roof. They are certainly warm dwellings, and with a little trouble could be finished off inside and made fit for the habitation of white men. Dormentoff's boat sail being old, having suffered from the strong wind, was taken ashore and mended by some of the Eskimo women. Whilst I stood watching their mode of sewing, a young woman rose, came up to me, and commenced crossing herself at a great rate. I stopped her, saying, " That will do," when she desisted, and returned to her occupation. One unusually tall man arrested my attention, his large hands presenting a striking contrast to the generally diminutive size of that member amongst the Eskimos.

The weather cleared up somewhat while we staid here, but the wind was decidedly cool. The fine weather did not last long. Soon after we started the sky again became overcast, the wind abated, and a fine drizzling rain set in. The banks now became higher, and were lined at the water's edge with gravel. On we went in a settled rain. I got out our tent and covered myself with if, with my back turned to the storm. Brother Weinland and I sat side by side, comforting one another with the reflection that this unpleasant state of things could not last long. At 8 p. m. we made for the lower end of an island where we wished to encamp for the night. We had considerable difficulty in accomplishing our purpose, as our large skin-boat was so heavily laden. The current is here very strong, and our crew of eight men were either tired or lazy. Amid pouring rain tents were pitched, a fire was kindled, and supper cooked and eaten. Our blankets, as well as oar other wraps, felt damp, but the Lord preserved us from harm, and we slept well.

July 2, Wednesday. -- Though the weather outside was tempestuous, we passed a comfortable night inside our tent. Mr. Lind calls his eight oarsmen a lazy set of men, and says that the natives do not respect a man unless they fear him. He further stated that it would be out of the question for him to love the natives. We found, however, by experience, that it is quite possible to manage the Eskimos without resorting to severe and unkind measures. The wind rising at 10 a. m., we resumed our journey in the rain. The strength of the current three times baffled our endeavors to round a low bank which stretched far out into the river. This circumstance caused our helmsman to give vent to his feelings in strong language, which he afterwards begged us to excuse, stating that such was not his wont. One more long and strong pull and the hoisting of the sail just at the proper moment crowned our efforts with success. A favorable breeze soon brought us to a small village, where we halted for dinner. Then on again in wind and rain until 11 p. m., when we at last reached our camping place and pitched our tents within a day's journey of Kolmakovsky. The Lord be praised !

July 3, Thursday. -- Mr. Lind left us with two natives in our three-holed bidarka at 7 a. m., and, as we afterwards learnt, reached Kolmakovsky about noon. We in our large boat had a long and tedious day's journey. The wind dying away completely, some of our men went on shore and towed the boat along for a considerable distance by means of a rope fastened to the mast. This was hard work. Mr. Lind's place at the helm was taken by a native trader who had joined us. This man's features differed from those of the Eskimos, and we w ere thus reminded of the fact that we were approaching the boundary line separating the Eskimos from the Ingaliks of the interior. All day we were passing along a range of high, snow-covered mountains. For the greater part of the way, however, these were hidden from our view by a lower, wooded range, skirting the bank of the river. Occasionally we enjoyed a peep into pine-covered glens.

As we came in sight of Kolmakovsky we were very much amused with Tetka, Mr. Lind's interpreter, who blew off a can and a half of powder with an old musket to give notice of our approach. At last, after a journey of nine days from Mumtrekhlagamute, we reached Kolmakovsky at 9 p. m., and right glad we were to cuter Mr. Lind's hospitable dwelling. The Lord has wonderfully helped us thus far, and we believe that He will aid us throughout the rest of our journeyings, and guide us to the attainment of our object, namely, the discovery of a suitable place for the establishment of a mission amongst the Eskimos.

July 4, Friday. -- Mr. Lind having prepared a good bed for us on the floor, on a large spring mattress (a special luxury), we had promised ourselves a good night's Test. Scarcely had we lain down, however, when the mosquitoes began attacking us in a most persistent manner. We bore it for a time, but at last the buzzing of these little creatures increased to such an alarming extent that we both started, almost simultaneously, to take vengeance on our persecutors. A wholesale massacre commenced, and continued by the light of a candle for at least an hour. At last, thinking we had completely got rid of these unwelcome visitors, we returned to our fine spring mattress. But, alas, our room was soon again filled with fresh swarms of these insects. They got the better of us, and kept me, at least, awake all night. It is impossible to ignore them. They assert their presence far too demonstratively to admit of that.

Kolmakovsky consists of seven log-buildings, built in the form of a square, open towards the river. That hexagonal erection, the fort in days gone by, is forty years – old. The church, an old building, with a rather rough interior, contains a few shabby oil paintings with candlesticks in front of them. The Greek priest from the Yukon, a half-breed, comes hither every winter. On receiving notice of his intended visit, a number of natives assemble here, some of them from a considerable distance. The priest keeps no services ; his chief pastoral duty is to perform the marriage ceremony. 'The fact that this place is under Greek Church influence militates against its selection as the site of a mission station. A beginning might be made here, however, by opening a school, for though the population is thin and scattered, there are a number of children in the place and neighborhood. Messrs. Lind and Zipri have seven, and their employees several. The former says there are about fifty children at Paimute, a village ten miles higher up the river.

July 5, Saturday. -- Here, as was the case at the lower station, we are well entertained and cared for. The weather is still very changeable, being alternately bright and rainy. I was engaged for the greater part of the day in developing the photographs taken on our journey. Mr. Lind made Brother Weinland a present of a beautiful ])aika, or skin coat, and a pair of boots.

July 6, Sunday. -- Mr. Lind having paid off his men, they had all left, and the place seemed quiet in consequence. The weather continued dull and showery. Wherever our missionaries may ultimately settle, they cannot but feel isolated and lonely in this country. All the white traders we have met with have adopted native women as their partners. The civilized Eskimo women seem very decorous in their manners and behavior. Their children are of prepossessing appearance, are dressed in European fashion, and are trained in the ways of their white fathers.

July 7, Monday. -- The weather was wet all day, and everything in our tent feels damp. It is astonishing to us that we do not suffer from this trying weather, but the Lord wonderfully preserves us from all harm.

Mr. Lind has the finest Eskimo dogs we have met with. I succeeded in photographing his favorite. One drawback attending these dogs, however, is the noise they make at night. One begins the howling, another joins him in a different key, a third and a fourth swell the discordant chorus, and each terrible outburst lasts at least five minutes, with various crescendos and diminuendos. We were frequently obliged to laugh at the very absurdity of the uproar, though it invariably roused us from our sleep.

The next day Brother Weinland and I went ten miles up the river to see the village "Napaimute. We found a few barrabaras, all in a dilapidated condition, and not many inhabitants. The jouruey thither took two hours and a quarter, but we returned with the stream in fifty-five minutes.

July 9, Wednesday. -- Cheered by the promising appearance of the weather, we began packing up our things after breakfast. Hitherto we had been cared for by the traders, but now we were about to be cast entirely upon our own resources. We were obliged to make our way back to Nushagak in our long skin-boats, a distance of about (100 miles. Equipping ourselves with the provisions necessary for the comparatively short journey to Mumtrekhlagamute, we left Kolmakovsky at 2.20 p. m., after bidding good-bye to Messrs. Lind and Dormentoff and their wives, who had still before them a 20 days' tedious journey up the river to Venizali. Mr. Lind kindly lent us one of ibis boats, as one of ours had been left at Nicolars for repairs. He also sent with us a young native about sixteen years of age, as a fourth oarsman, the elder Washili having been left at Mumtrekhlagamute to superintend the repairing of oue of our boats. The weather was fair, and we traveled so rapidly that in five hours we traversed a distance which had been a two-days' journey in coming up the stream. We stopped at the spot which had been our second last halting-place when ascending the xiver. Here the natives lighted a fire, and presently our supper of tea, bread, and fried salmon was ready. A little before nin& we resumed our journey, intending to proceed all night if possible. At midnight we found that we had traveled as far as in three days whilst ascending the stream, and thought it best to encamp for the remainder of the night. Not having been able to secure an old tent for our men, we shared ours with the younger Washili and the boy, leaving the other two to find shelter as best they might.

July 10, Thursday. -- Contrary to our expectations, it rained during the night. Whilst we were having our breakfast the weather cleared somewhat, and we again started on our way a little after 11. When we stopped for dinner off the village of Ugavik, a number of natives came in their bark canoes to see us, astonished, no doubt, by the unusual sight of white men on the river. Here we procured a large salmon in exchange for a small piece of tobacco. Starting again we had a race with the natives, which caused great amusement to all. Soon the rain began again in right good earnest. The traveler sitting in the bidarka up to his waist is better able to protect himself against the wet than when seated in the open skin-boats, provided he ia furnished with a rain-coat, such as we, unfortunately, had not. Our heavy rubber coats, made to open in front, were not sufficient to protect us from the »vet. I may here give my readers a description of the native rain-coat, such as we procured at a later stage of our journey. It is made of the intestines of the seal or walrus, so closely sown together by native women as to be waterproof. The shape is that of a wide shirt, opening at the top into a hood, fitting closely round the head. The coat is tied round the outside circular rim of the hole in which the traveler is seated, and in this way the rain is prevented from entering the boat. The garment is made so large and roomy that its wearer can pull in his arms and warm his hands in his coat pockets. As we did not yet enjoy this protection, we were obliged to fortify ourselves against the wet by means of our rubber coats and blankets.

The lad who had accompanied us from Kolmakovsky, having nothing on but au old dilapidated skin parka, got thoroughly wet. The poor fellow was naturally very talkative, and had hitherto kept up a constant chatter with the others, but now relapsed into silence. He shivered all over and seemed no longer able to paddle.

Having passed our fifth camping place of the upward voyage, our men redoubled their exertions, and we soon reached a small fishing station occupied by only two Eskimo families. Here we halted for the night. The natives were very friendly and obliging. As this place is situated near one of the pine forests here and there skirting the river, the mosquitoes were very troublesome. We are gradually getting into the way of cooking our own meals, and being in good health, are able thankfully to enjoy whatever the Lord gives us. To-day we traveled about sixty miles.

July 11, Friday. -- We set off again at 8.30 a. m., the weather being fine, though the sky was clouded. Traveling is pleasant enough as long as the rain keeps off, and the wind drives away the mosquitoes.

After dinner an aged native, evidently suffering from some complaint, tried to explain to us the nature of his disease, but in vain. A few pills seemed to satisfy him. Poor fellow! how we wished we could help him. The missionaries who may be appointed to the work in Alaska ought to have some medical knowledge. At 7.30 p. m. we stopped to take supper not far from the place where we had passed the first night after leaving Mumtrekhlagamute on our way up the river. During the afternoon's voyage the water, lashed by the wind into considerable waves, occasionally washed over the forepart of our boats, wetting the man in the front hole.

At 8.15 p. m. we se+ out once more, with the intention of reaching Nicolars station that night if possible. Our oarsmen making every exertion, we arrived at Mumtrekhlagamute about 10 p. m. We thus completed the first stage of our homeward journey, having traversed a distance of about 240 miles in two and a half days. Every one at the station .seemed to have retired to rest, but presently all were astir, and our boats were soon hauled on shore and unloaded. After partaking of a cup of tea and some bread and butter, prepared for us by Mrs. Nicolai, we retired to our tent, thankful to the Lord for having preserved us thus far on our way down the river.

July 12, Saturday. -- During the night the wind was high, shaking our tent considerably, though not disturbing us.

We learnt from Nicolai that his trading journeys extend to the low country lying along the coast between the Kuskokwim and the Yukon, and even to the island of Nunivak. Missionaries settled here would be able to travel about in company with Nicolai and have the benefit of his assistance. We learnt to like him and his wife, they were so quiet, pleasant, and obliging. Nicolai is very anxious to learn English, of which language he has some slight knowledge. He would soon attain a certain degree of proficiency, and would then make an excellent interpreter for the missionaries on such journeys. He hopes and expects that the missionaries will settle at his station.

July 13, Sunday. -- About mid-day, the weather promising to clear up, old Washili insisted upon starting. We told him that we should continue our journey on the morrow, but were not ready to do so to-day. Nicolai very promptly settled him by telling him to go alone if he was in such a hurry to be off; the other three did not manifest the same impatience.

July 14, Monday. -- I bought from Nicolai an old tent for the use of our men, and a skin parka, which his sister enlarged and made comfortable for me. We sold him our rifle, as we had not found any use for it.

Our equipment for our three weeks' journey to Nushagak involved quite a formidable list of articles. Our supplies included : tea, 5 pounds; sugar, 30 poumls; salt, 1 packet ; ground coffee, 2 tins ; butter, 1 tin; pepper, 1 tin; condensed milk, 6 tins; canned fruits, 1 dozen tins; pilot bread, 1 box. Further, we had with us a shot-gun, with ammunition, a tent, thermometer, barometer, telescope, compass, saw, hatchet, axe, spade, matches, candles, two satchels containing a change of underclothing, our bedding, the photographing apparatus, and, for purposes of barter with the natives, two pieces of printed calico, together with an assortment of knives, pipes, beads, and forty-four pounds of tobacco.

How such a quantity of things were to be packed into or onto our two bidarkas it was hard to say. But it was accomplished. These last are 27 feet long, about 22-inches wide, and a foot deep at the center hole, tapering fore and aft to a point. The boats were covered with skins of the sea lion, and furnished with holes for three occupants. After packing all our things into bundles sufficiently small we put them through these holes and pushed them into the corners with a stick. We had to be careful to leave room for our legs, as we were obliged to sit with them stretched out, being unable to assume the crouching posture of the natives. Our tent poles, frying pans, and other articles of inconvenient shape were fastened by straps to the top of the boats.

Thus equipped and ready for our long return journey to Nushagak, we bade farewell to Nicolai and his family. At 8 a. m. our boats were launched, and we took our seats each in the center hole of his respective bidarka. Our bedding, being folded up, served as a cushion. The text for the day was : "There failed not aught of any good thing which the Lord had spoken unto the house of Israel ; all came to pass." (Josh. xxi, 45.) We looked back on the past with thankfulness, and forward to the future with confidence and courage.

He who has helped us hitherto Will help us on our journey through.

Six miles from Mumtrekhlagamute lies Napaskiachamule, on the left bank of the river. It would appear to be a large village, and to be sufficiently near the trading post to be readily accessible to missionaries stationed there. A two hours' voyage thence brought us in sight of Napahaiagamute, lying not far from the high land on the right bank of the stream. Towards noon we reached Lomavigamute, where we procured some fish in exchange for a little tobacco, and enjoyed a good dinner. The wind by this time had abated, and the water was as smooth as glass. Traveling under such circumstances was most pleasant. Far away the southwestern horizon blue sky appeared, an indication of coming fine weather. All felt cheered and hopeful. The ebb tide favoring our course, towards evening we pitched our tents for the night at the village of Naghaikhlavigamute. Our boats with their cargoes were carried up the bank and placed on the grass near our tents. This was our usual mode of procedure when camping for the night.

July 15, Tuesday. -- We started at 8 a. m., with the ebb of the tide, and hoped to make good progress during the day, the weather being fine ; but our men took it into their heads to work across the river, the oj^posite bank of which was just visible. About noon, therefore, we landed at a village on the other side, called Chlugachamute. Here our crews gave us to understand that they would not be able to proceed until the tide was again up, and we were obliged to wait there for three weary hours. We examined the village, and found it to be one of the dirtiest we had seen. It is situated on a very small and very muddy creek, left dry at low tide. Rotten fish lay all around, offensive both to sight and smell.

The staple food of the Eskimos consists of fish found in such abundance that the people are inexcusably wasteful in their use of them. The natives eat them either raw or dried, or in the first stage of putrefaction. To produce this they dig a hole in the ground, into which they place grass or matting; they then fill the cavity with fish, covering it over with grass and earth. The heads and roes of salmon are subjected to the same treatment. The latter, from being a beautiful pink hue, become white and slimy. I was able to eat the dried fish, but, unless in a famished condition, could not bring myself to touch what was partly decomposed.

At last we continued our journey. When in the middle of the stream we only just succeeded in passing over a mud-bank. Then we understood why our crews had waited for the tide.

Having been without food since morning, and the sun's rays being hot and untempered by any refreshing breeze, I became very drowsy and fell asleep. Presently I was awakened by the voice of Brother Weinland, as he endeavored to induce our crews to proceed on their way. Our boats were lying alongside one another, and some of the young men had gone to sleep. At last Brother Weiuland succeeded in persuading them to move on. Reaching Apokachamute early in the evening, we were obliged to encamp here for the night, as our men were unwilling to proceed any farther. A number of natives assisted in hauling our boats up the steep banks. We were both very hungry, and ate with great relish our supper of fried salmon, bread and butter and canned peaches. Whilst preparing supper, we observed a funeral procession making its way towards the place of burial. Some men carrying a rude coffin headed the humble cortege, then came others bearing the dead body wrapped in fur. The remains of the departed were followed by the bereaved widow and children, and by other persons carrying the personal property of the departed. After the body had been placed in the coffin, the latter was raised upon logs so as to be out of the reach of animals, and surrounded by all the belongings of the deceased. Oh, how we longed to tell these poor people of the Lord Jesus, who is the Resurrection and the Life. May they soon learn to know Him !

A number of men and women gathered, as usual, at the door of our tent, to see the – white men eat. We tried to talk with them, and managed to make one old woman understand that she ought to wash herself. She said she had no soap; nevertheless, wishing to please us, she pulled up some of the wet tundra, or moss, and cleaned her dirty face before us. Soon a marked improvement was effected in her appearance A young girl who stood by, with fine rosy cheeks, dark, well-set eyes, would have been decidedly handsome had she only been a little less regardless of her personal appearance. Who will help to buy soap and combs for the Eskimos of Alaska, as well as to supply them with schools and teachers, and the pure Gospel in their own tongue? The Eskimos are waiting to receive these gifts, and are willing to make the best possible use of them. "The fields are white to the harvest; pray ye, therefore, the Lord of the harvest that He will send forth laborers into His harvest." And give practical proof of your earnestness by aiding with your substance, in order that the work may be speedily commenced.

July 16, Wednesday. -- Leaving Apokachaniute early, at 1 p. m., we reached the warehouse, where we had to wait so long before traveling up the river. After dinner and a rest, we again started for the village of Quiuchaohamute, near which the Dora had anchored on our arrival in the estuary of the Kuskokwim River. Here our patience was now put to a severe test. The rapidly receding tide laid bare immense mud hanks, stretching for miles down the broad mouth of the river. As each of these had to be carefully rounded, our progress was very slow. The wind being contrary, our men kept as close as possible to the banks and pushed the boats along by means of poles. It was tedious work. Night closed in and the rain began to fall. At last, about 10 p. m., we struck on a large bank at some distance from the shore, and covered by only a few inches of water. We just managed to place our backs to the wind and rain, waiting anxiously for the turn of the tide. In about an hour's time we were afloat again, and the boats were pushed on until they once more stuck fast in a shallow place. We found it difficult to be cheerful under these circumstances, as our rain-coats were not weather-proof, and we were getting a complete wetting. Our four natives were in excellent humor all the time, joking and laughing, and calling our mud bank "marayah-gamute" (mud village). Feeling very chilly, we helped them to push forward the boats as soon as the rising tide once more liberated us. Where the bottom of the river permitted it, they occasionally got out and dragged the bidarkas through the shallows into deeper water. Our varied efforts to progress continued for a long time, until at length the distant howling of dogs announced the vicinity of a village. We reached the place at 2 in the morning. Amid wind and lain we hauled our boats ashore, pitched our tents, made a fire, and had something to eat. Then we retired to rest, and right glad were we to do so, after so many hours of exposure and the cramped posture of sitting in a bidarka. But we did not forget, first of all, to return thanks to the Lord, who had preserved ns from no small peril. Had the weather been more stormy, our frail canoes would have been shattered, in which case we should never have succeeded in reaching the shore over the enormous expanse of mud.

July 17, Thursday.--We rose refreshed at 9.30 a. m. After breakfast natives came, bringing articles for sale, some of which we bought in exchange for matches, tobacco, and other commodities. A.t 2 p. m. we wished to start, but our men were not willing to do so, because the wind was blowing. Thev reiterated the words "Ashietuk, ashietuk!" (bad.bad !)

Our trading with the natives evidently caused them to entertain a good opinion of us. One man accosted me with the words, " Ilchpit ashechtuten" (you are good). It would certainly not require a great effort, to gain the good-will and confidence of this inoffensive and good-natured people. We found them also to be strictly honest. No attempt was made by any to steal anything from us. Had they been a greedy and savage race, it would have been an easy matter for them to kill and rob us with impunity. We felt, however, quite safe amongst them, and never suspected them of evil designs. The Eskimos of the Kuskokwim River know nothing as yet of intoxicating liquors, and as long as the Alaska Commercial Company might  aim its supremacy in these waters we have a guarantee that they will not be introduced amongst them. Should spirituous liquors once be imported into the country the destruction of the Eskimos would speedily follow, and a serious hindrance would be opposed to the preaching of the Gospel.

July 18, Friday. -- Another trying and protracted day's journey. We were called at 5 a.m. The tide was up, and our men were anxious to get over the immense mud banks in the river and reach Good News Bay, or, as the natives call it, " Imachbiltshoach" (little sea). After rowing, or rather paddling, for six hours, we halted for dinner. Here the mountains skirt the coast all the way to Cape Newenham. At 2.30 p. m. we proceeded, and kept on our way for eleven long hours, skirting the beach all the way, though not so near as to be in danger of breakers washing our boats ashore. We greatly admired the endurance and perseverance of our Eskimo. Hour after hour they paddled on indefatigably, determined to reach the bay and get into safe waters whilst the gentle breeze lasted. Had the wind and waves increased we should have had to land, and knew not what length of time we might have been obliged to stay on this bleak, unfriendly shore. Presently I grew very tired, my back was sore from leaning so long against the rim of the hole in which I was seated, and my leg." were stiff with being stretched out in the boat at a right angle to my body. Toward night 1 felt sleepy, but the noise of the breakers kept me awake. The sea rose and washed over the fore parts of our bidarkas, but we kept the water out by putting On our long rain-coats and lashing the lower parts of these garments round the rims of the holes of the canoes. 1 prayed that the men might have strength to hold out ; nor did they show any signs of giving in. Midnight passed and we were still paddling along the coast. At last, about an hour later, we leached the narrow entrance to Good News Bay, and safely pa.ssed the surf caused by the inflowing tide. It was so dark that we could scarcely see the mountains or the shores of the bay. After another hour's paddling a cone-shaped mountain ahead of us became just visible in the dim twilight, and, to our great joy, our men pulled for shore. With some difHculty we managed to kindle a fire, and, after a cup of tea, we gratefully lay down in our tent, and were soon fast asleep, though the night was now wet and stormy, and our tent was considerably shaken by the wind.

July 19, Saturday. -- We slept till 11 a. m., and felt refreshed. The storm, which increased in violence toward evening, prevented us from continuing our journey. Our men hauled the two bikardas higher up the bank out of reach of the high spring tide. It was indeed providential that this gale had not arisen the day before, for had such been the case I do not know what we should have done along that stretch of solitary coast. We came to the conclusion that Good News Bay would not be a suitable place for the establishment of a mission station, as there is but one village in the bay and an utter absence of timber.

July "20, Sunday. -- Our Sunday in our lonely tent on the beach was rather long and weary. As we had no fresh meat either for ourselves or our crew, we endeavored to procure some, and Brother Weinland succeeded in shooting a few sea-gulls. The broth was excellent, but the meat did not become tender after hours of stewing and boiling.

July 21, Monday. -- The wind somewhat abating, we hurriedly packed up our goods, launched our boats, and put on our rubber kamlikas, or coats. These, however, were a failure, as they did not keep out the damp. Rain coming on again, and the water washing over the boat, we soon got wet and cold. A ten miles' voyage brought us to Mumtrachagamute, the only village in the bay, containing, according to Petroff, about 150 inhabitants. Whilst we were unpacking and pitching our tent, almost the whole village turned out to see us. The natives watched our every movement, but were very quiet and well-behaved. They appear to be a mixed race, many being nearly white. Here we provided ourselves with fresh fish, the most delicious salmon-trout. Whenever the sun shone we tried to dry some of our wet clothes. We were again filled with astonishment and gratitude that we were not laid up after exposure to such wet and cold.

July 22, Tuesday. -- It was well that last night, before lying down, we tightened the fastenings of our tents, for a strong gale springing up from the east shook them terribly, whilst the rain poured down in torrents. Some of the tent-pegs were loosened by the storm, and I had to go out in the rain to secure them. I could not sleep for the cold until I put on my skin parka.

We are obliged to follow the good, if laconic, advice given to us by Nicolai, when we were leaving Mumtrekhlagamute. " No go -- eat, sleep. Go -- no eat. No eat -- no go." By this he meant, " If you cannot continue your journey, eat and rest ; when you can travel, i. e., when the weather is fine, don't spend much time in cooking. Lastly, if you don't eat when you have a chance, yon won't be able to travel."

An elderly native entered our tent towards evening, squatted down, and began violently crossing himself before us, meaning, I suppose, to show his piety. We stopped this proceeding on his part, and only regretted our inability to converse with him. Rain, rain all day. with but little intermission.

July 23, Wednesday. -- About 7 o'clock this morning we were awakened by some of the natives, and found the water beginning to wash into our tent, although this had been pitched above high-water mark. Up we started, removed our goods to a still higher position, and protected them with our rubber blankets against the rain. We also quickly took down our tent. After some deliberation, we decided to proceed on our journey at once. Our crew were unwilling to start, but we obliged them to do so. ln a drizzling rain we put our things into the boats and launched them. The wind being favorable, we soon entered the mouth of the river we bad now to ascend.

Some reader may ask, " Why not sail along the coast to Togiak ?" Sucb a voyage round Cape Newenbam, stretcbing far out into the open sea, would bave been much too perilous in these frail skin boats of ours. We had already had sufficient experience witb one day's voyage in bidarkas along an open sborc to recognize the desirability of reaching Togiak Bay by going up this river and carrying our boats and baggage over the watershed to another delivering its waters into the sea on the farther sideof the cape. The small, windnig stream up wbich we therefore turned is beautifully clear and the current very rapid. Traveling on this river is very different to journeying on the Kuakokwim, as the boats have to be ])usbed tbrougb the shallows Ijy means of poles, which are quickly exchanged for paddles when dee)i water is reached. the suddenness of our departure had obliged us to go without our breakfast, but. although we felt both cold and hungry we pushed on till noon, when we halted and took refreshments. Resuming our journey for some hours, we camped for the night: close by the beautifully clear stream. A native of Mumtrfichagamute accompanied us in his kayak to give assistance at the portage.

July 24, Thursday. -- Drizzling rain fell all the morning, and we made but little progress before dinner. When the rain ceased, we exchanged our rubber coats for our furs, and felt the comfort of them. We soon entered a large plain, through which the river wound, at first deep and narrow. Presently, however, it became more like a deep rut than anything else, and it would have been impossible to travel up the stream in any kind of boat but a bidarka. the rivulet gradually decreased in width till there 'was scarcely room for the boat, which it must be remembered is only 2 feet wide. It also became shallow, and there were occasionally such abrupt turns that the boat, 27 feet in length, could with difficulty be got through. All getting out, the natives pulled the boats over the shallows. It is astonishing what rough usage these skin boats can stand! Brother Weinland and myself walked for about half a mile on the soft mossy ground by the side of the river. In many parts this was so swampy that our long rubber boots stood us in good stead. Nothing but the occasional appearance of the men's heads above the high grass lining the water's edge served to. indicate the vicinity of a water-course. We were tired out, and glad to spend the night at the point where the portage was to be commenced. This was indicated by a few sticks placed in the ground, most likely by Mr. Langtree, the miner, who had passed this way a short time before us. the weather had cleared up, and a heavy- dew at evening promised us fine weather for the morrow. The mountains in tin* part are not rocky, but rounded off, and covered, like the plain, with tundra, or moss. They are totally devoid of timber, though here and there their sides are studded with patches of low green bushes. We are both in good health, and bear the fatigues of the journey well.

July 25, Friday. -- Got up at 5 a. m., made the tire, and roused the men. the morning was foggy, and the wind being W.N.W., gave us hopes of a tine day. Nor were we disappointed. After breakfast, we commenced the portage. Whilst the men were engaged in transporting our boats across the "divide," as the intervening space of ground is technically called, we busied ourselves in packing up our goods in bundles of convenient size for the men to carry. By the time they returned we bad our bundles ready for them. Lashing these on their backs by means of ropes, they set off once more, and this time we followed them, carrying our satchels in our hands. The small caravan resembled a company of peddlers. We found it difficult to walk through the swamps and tundra, without any burdens, and were astonished at the heavy weights the natives could carry. We greatly admired the cheerfulness and willingness they displayed in the performance of their duties. Presently the fog cleared away and the sun shone out. the mosquitoes now reappeared upon the scene, and,, to make up for lost time, assailed us most vigorously. At Lake No. 1 our thing, were put loosely in and on the boats, which two men then paddled across the water, whilst the rest rounded the lake on foot. Arrived at the farther shore, the bidarkas and the bundles were again carried over the intervening country to Lake No. 2, and in this way we continued our journey, until we stopped fur dinner at Lake No. 4. These lakes are very small, the largest being scarcely a mile in length, and the water they contain is beautifully clear and sweet. The natives shared some fish, which were of quite a red color. We were told that the appearance of this color in all fish of the salmon kind was due to their having migrated from salt water to fresh. Another characteristic is a swelling on the back close to the neck. Red salmon are generally devoid of that fine flavor which marks the ordinary kind. After dinner, the boats were paddled across Lake No. 4, and then boats and goods were carried to the stream flowing into Togiak Bay. Here we paid off Makalkah, the native who had accompanied us from Mumtracbagamute, and be returned home in his kayak. We once more packed everything into our boats, and then launched them on the stream. We found it even worse than the one we had ascended. In one place the banks were so narrow that we Lad to drag the boats through by niaiu force. At another the bend was so abrupt that a portion of the banks had to be cut away to admit of the boats passing. But matters soon began to mend. The stream gradually widened, until it ut last developed into a winding mountain torrent, alive with trou^, some of which we saw shooting through the water with incredible velocity. Our own progress was now as rapid as it had previously been slow ; the men had very little paddling to do, and our main care was to prevent the boat froiu running into the bank and breaking up. Many a time we were washed broadside against the bank, yet our bidarkas grazed it Avithout receiving any injury.

Traveling under these conditions was most enjoyable. The scenery was very beautiful; the view was bounded on either side by well-shaped mountains, rising from the plain below, with snow still resting on them in patches. Before camping for the night, we first heard and then saw a bear, the only one we met with during the whole of our travels.

July 26, Saturday. -- A beautiful morning, the sun shining bright and warm. After a good long rest, we started at 10.30 a. m. down the clear and rapid stream, which by this time had attained a considerable size. In a short time clouds again gathered, and we had rain for some hours. The region through which we were passing is one vast solitude, over which bears and birds hold undivided sway. We took dinner at the deserted village of Aziavigamute, and then made our way in a short time to Togiak Bay. Rounding a headland, we readied the sea once more, and encamped on the beach opposite the island of Hagemeister, near the mouth of a small clear mountain stream. The weather was bright again, and we had a most beautiful evening. The sea was perfectly calm. On our way. Brother Weinland shot some ducks, and four young geese were hunted down. The natives also speared a large salmon, so that we were plentifully supplied with fresh meat. We hope to reach Togiak to-morrow. So far the Lord has helped and preserved us. To Him be all the praise!

July 27, Sunday. -- The weather was tine, the sea calm, and, a gentle wind blowing in our favor, we thought it best to proceed on our journey, though it was the Lord's day. Thunder-storms were forming in all directions except out at sea, so we fortunately escaped the heavy showers which passed along the shore a little way inland. After dinner, we passed under some high cliffs, on which immense numbers of sea-birds were roosting.

Here Chimeyune, being troubled with boils, was unable to paddle any more, so the boat in which I was seated took the other in tow, and the three other men paddled on with renewed energy, intending, if possible, to reach their homes in the village of Togiakamute .that evening. This they succeeded in doing by about 10 p. m. Although we reached our destination so late, a good many natives came round us, partly with the intention of welcoming back our crew. We were thoroughly tired out, and glad of the night's rest. Thanks to the tine weather, we had once more dry things on which to lie down -- a comfort we had not enjoyed for some time.

July 28, Monday. -- To day we had a most enjoyable period of rest. The weather was beautiful, and we made good use of it by drying the rest of our things, which we spread out on the gravelly beach. Although many Eskimos were about, we did not miss a single article. We enjoyed the sight of the beautiful scenery, so totally different from that of the Lower Kuskokwim. Out in the glittering bay lie Hagemeister and the Walrus Islands, bathed, as it were, in blue. All around us are mountains, rising either in ranges or in isolated peaks from the plains.

This was the place and district we had at first agreed to explore, thinking that the country bordering on the Togiak Bay might afford a convenient site for the establishment of a mission. But as the Greek Church claims the whole of this region as included in the range of lier missionary efforts, we did not wish to interfere.

Preparations and arrangements for our further journey employed our afternoon. Poor Chimeyune was still unfit for duty, so we paid him about £2 6s. for his forty-five days' labor, and engaged in his stead a man named Mikeila Naumayuli. The latter was a very fine specimen of an Eskimo, a well-made, muscular fellow, about 6 feet in height. Towards evening I accompanied the trader, Demetri Simonowitch, in one of his bidarkas to his store, situated on the bay, at a distance of two hours' row from the village, and bought from him sea-biscuits, sugar, lard, and flour, in exchange for knives. Returning to our camp at 10 p. m., I was quite ready for the tea and roast fish which Brother Weinland had prepared.

A good many of the inhabitants are half-breeds. Some of the boys have very good features. I was much pleased with one old man, whose acquaintance Ave had tirst made on arriving here in the Dora, and who was evidently glad to see us again. Had the natives been thievishly inclined, there were many little things lying about which they might have taken without fear of detection.

We intend (D. V.) ascending the River Togiak as far as Kisianmnte in order to make ourselves acquainted with the stif^am and the uatiA-es inhabitin'g its banks.

July 29, Tuesday. -- Slept well till 10 a. m. After leisurely cooking our breakfast and packing our things in the boats, we wished to start at once, but our men demurred, and we did not set out until 5 p.m., when we discovered that they had been waiting for the high tide to help them in passing over some shallows at the entrance of the river. The Togiak is rapid and beautifully clear, but rather shallow in many places. We reached Ikaliulkhagamute about T.l.'j p. ni., and met with a friendly reception from the natives. The scenery here is beautiful; mountain rise from the plain on both sides, at no great distance from the river.

July 30, Wednesday. -- I slept badly in consequence of the mosquitoes, and a rash which has been troubling me for some days. Before leaving Ikaliulkhagamute we procured from the natives two casbruchs, or rain-coats, made of the intestines of the walrus. In exchange for these we gave powder, shot, tobacco, calico, and a knife. Soon it began to rain, and then our casbruchs proved very serviceable; indeed, we ought to have had them from the commencement of our journey. After we had dined, about 2 p. m., amid pouring rain, our men pushed on bravely against the strong current, and we reached Kisianmute at 5.30 p. m. Petroff estimates the population of this village at 600 ; but, from actual observation, we conclude that it has only about half that number of inhabitants.

A native, who spoke Russian and was dressed in European costume, constituted himself our servant. Boiling a kettle of water for ns, he brought it, and squatted down in our tent. Sending away the other natives, he joined ns at our evening meal as if it were a matter of course. We had no objection to his doing this, on account of the services he rendered. After supper he washed the cups, knives, and forks. Again, later on in the evening, he boiled another kettle of water and a pot of salmon-berries. We gathered some words from the natives, and found them very willing to teach us. We tried them with our own language, and found that it was more difficult for them to pronounce our words than for us to articulate theirs. A group of children repeated the A, B, C after us very nicely.

July 31, Thursday. -- We traded with the people for various articles in exchange for beads. I photographed a group of children and our new boatman, Mikeila. A good many of the men at this place cut their hair in a peculiar way, which causes them to resemble monks in appearance. Our voyage down the river was very pleasant. After bartering with the natives at Ikaliulkhagamute for a few more articles, we returned at 5.30 to Togiakamute, where we pitched our tent. We were agreeably surprised on our arrival by Demetri handing us a box addressed to us. Opening it, we discovered a letter from Mr. Clarke, who had very kindly sent us the box from Nushagak, and hoped that we might find its contents acceptable. It contained thirty good cigars, four large cakes of tobacco, two tins of boiled oysters, two of corned beef, one of fresh boiled beef, three tins of sardines, one of peaches, one of corn, and one of peas.

Thus we concluded our short trip up the Togiak. Truly the presence of the Lord has been with us all through our journey. We have suffered no w^nt, and enjoyed good health the whole time. The days are getting a little shorter, and we are glad of candles to light our tents at night.

August 1, Friday. -- Again I could not sleep, although I had made my bed as comfortable as circumstances would pernit. In order to have a change from the dry biscuit (the oily bread we have), I made a damper of flour and water, which, though not of the first quality, proved very palatable when eaten with our canned butter. We rested to-day, and enjoyed a good sleep in the afternoon. The natives sing monotonous songs, or, I should rather say, hum them, repeating the words very rapidly. The words sound like "Kanga anga ya, anga kanga " (ng being pronounced as in sang, rang). As they seem fond of singing, it will be a pleasing part of the missionaries' duty to teach them this art. This was my own experience in Australia, and if the Eskimos attain the same proficiency as the Australians, their teachers will feel amply rewarded for their trouble.

Sitting in my tent, and musing on what I had observed of the manners and customs of this people, it occurs to me to note briefly some of the sights which we have not witnessed amongst them. 1. As intoxicating liquors are unknown in Alaska, we have never seen an Eskimo the worse for drink. 2. We have never witnessed any quarreling amongst them. 3. We have never seen women ill-treated by men. 4. We have never detected the natives in any act of dishonesty, nor did they attempt to steal from us even when they could have done so unnoticed. 5. We never have had occasion to suspect them of harboring evil designs against us; we were perfectly safe amongst them.

August 2, Saturday. -- Leaving Togiakamute at 9.45 a. m., we halted for a few minutes at the storehouse, situated at a distance of ten miles from the village, in spite of its being so far removed from the trader's dwelling, no depredations are committed upon the goods stored there. We proceeded along the coast, lined with cliffs from 40 to 50 feet high. The weather being favorable, and the sea comparatively smooth, the journey past the Walrus Islands was delightful. The following are the native names of these islands, as 1 gathered them from the elder Washili, our boat man : Inghakfuk, Nunaluguk, Nunivriak, Gilchgik, Ajashak, and Ingerachtsuuk.

Away on the other side of the bay is the long island, Kikchtuchpit (Hagemeister). At 4 p. m. we stopped for dinner in a rocky recess opposite the fourth island. Not thinking it safe to stay over night in this otherwise comfortable retreat, we re-entered our boats, and our men recommenced paddling leisurely along the beautiful rock-bound shore. As a land breeze was blowing, the sea was very quiet, and the transparency of the -svater enabled us safely to pass over shallows where the bottom of the boat almost grazed the rocks. But what a surf there must be here in a westerly gale! The wind and waves have done their work amongst these rocks; the points of some of them are detached from the mainland and afford a safe roosting and breeding place for large numbers of sea-fowl. At 8.1.5 p. m. we landed in the large bay to the north of Kulluk Bay. After carrying our boats and goods beyond reach of the high tide, we pitched our tent amid high, thick grass. A short distance inland there is a small lake containing fish, so if detained here by unfavorable weather (for we can only pass this coast in calm weather) we shall be able to follow Nicolai' s advice, "No go -- eat, sleep." We retired to rest with thankful hearts, and were lulled to sleep by the sound of the breakers.

August 3, Sunday. -- A lovely morning. We left our camp at 8.45 a. m., and, slowly coasting along the gravelly beach, soon came again upon a rocky shore. Some seals made their appearance, but were too wary to be caught. In the next bay we came upon a curious rock, about 10 feet high, standing in a solitary position near the shore. We climbed the steep cliffs, and inspected this singular freak of nature. Its name in the native tongue is "Angerakfach." Slowly we moved on, favored with delightful weather and a calm sea. At 1 p. m., having made but little progress, as the natives were in no hurry to press forward, we stopped near a beautifully clear mountain stream and dined on some of the small black sea-fowl so plentiful along the shore.

Hitherto we had been protected from the strong land breeze by paddling close under the high cliffs. But rounding the next headland we encountered the full force of the wind, and experienced a rougher sea than on any previous occasion during our journey. The natives put on their cdsbruchs, as the sea was washing heavily over the forepart of the boats. We could feel the vibration caused by the shock, but fortunately the kayaks were able to resist the strain to which they were thus subjected. The shore is lined with rocks, between which the natives steered the boat whenever it was safe to do so, in order to avoid the rough water. Kulluk Bay is long and comparatively narrow, and, being inclosed by mountains on both sides, presents a rather picturesque appearance. It was late when we entered the bay, but our men were anxious to take advantage of the favorable state of the tide in order to reach the place from whence the portage has to be made. Now came a long, wearisome journey. Hour after hour we traveled on, far into the night. We ascended a winding river by moonlight, the dew falling heavily around us, and when the stream diminished in width, passed through a succession of swamps and pools, connected by shallow and winding channels. At last, about 1 a. m., we encamped for the remainder of the night on the banks of a pool of water literally full of fish.

August 4, Monday. -- We both slept well till 10 a, m. The day was beautifully clear and warm. Our men searched up and down for wood, and it was hard to say where they managed to find some, as there is nothing to be seen in this low, swampy country but grass and tundra. At 1 p. m. we began the second portage. The men had first of all to pull the boats up a little stream to the head of Lake No. I, whilst Brother Weinland and myself walked across the tundra, along a footpath which had been used in portages years ago. Again we entered the boats, and were rowed across the lake. Then the kayaks were unloaded, and everything made into bundles, as on the former occasion, and carried by the natives to Lake No. 2, which was crossed in the usual way. Here we had an instance of the obliging disposition of the Eskimos, and of their willingness to render us a service. Our last tin of condensed milk and Brother Weinland's great coat having been left near this lake, young Washili went back to fetch them. Then we found that the ax had also been forgotten, and the elder Washili at once returned for it. Lakes 3 and 4 are not far apart, and the boats could be dragged over the intervening tundra. Lakes 4 and 5 are separated by a swamp, into which we sank almost knee deep. Between Lakes 5 and 6 a long portage of a mile or more had to be effected across the "divide." It was a hot day, and the mosquitoes and sand-flies were very troublesome. The natives exhibited great powers of endurance. We tested Mikeila's strength by giving him a very heavy bundle ; but he carried it with ease, smiling and exclaiming, "Mekuk" (little"). By 8 p. m. boats and goods were safely deposited on the southern shore of Lake No. 6, 15 miles long and about 3 miles broad. All our clothes were dry, the weather fine, and our health good. How gracious the Lord has Vjeen to us, and how kindly He has led and protected us!

August 5, Tuesday. -- A strong northwest wind having sprung up during the night, we were at first unable to proceed. The natives said, "Ashietuk! Ashietuk!" (bad, bad), by way of showing us that it was unadvisable to continue our journey at present. The wind abating about 4 p. m., we loaded our boats and started. My steers-man, old Washili, being very cautions, preferred keeping close to the shore. Brother Weinland's men at first launched out into the middle of the lake, but after a while thought it more prudent to join us. Now and then the boat passed through dense shoals of fish. Paddling for two and a half hours brought us to the end of the lake. By that time the wind had gone down and the water was again smooth. Rapidly shooting down the stream, which forms the outlet of the lake, towards evening we reached a small village on a point of land formed liy the juncture of another stream with the one we descended. We pitched our tent on the soft tundra behind the village, and whilst doing this and cooking our supper were much annoyed by the mosquitoes. We were greatly pleased to notice the kind way in which our men treated a poor cripple we met with here, carrying him from the village to our camping ground. The sanitary condition of this place was most unsatisfactory.

August 6, Wednesday. -- During our journey down the stream we counted in one place about one hundred and twenty-five dead fish, and we are told that later on in the season the banks are lined with them to the depth of from 6 to 12 inches. Presently we entered another lake of considerable size and irregular shape, also closed in by mountains. At its southeastern extremity we saw pines for the first time since leaving Mumtrekhlagamnte. The outlet from this lake is very picturesque, the stream issuing rapidly between high banks. At 1 p. m. we reached another small village, – where we took dinner, continuing our journey at 4 p. m. The river soon became deeper, broader, and very winding in its course. We were presently exposed to a heavy thunder shower, but thanks to our casbruchs we escaped a wetting. The night w\is fine and moonlit, and we pitched our tent at the foot of a mountain, close by the water's edge.

August 7, Thursday. -- We left our camp at 10 a. m. And now our patience was severely tried, for, on account of the extremely tortuous nature of the river Igushek, we were a little more than two miles in a direct line from our last camping place after three hours paddling, with the tide in our favor. On our way down. Brother Weinland shot about twenty ducks and two geese, and we in our boat captured one goose and one duck. We gave our men four ducks, but these not being enough to satisfy them they helped themselves to four more. Splendid paddling on the part of our crew brought us by 10 p. m. to the mouth of the river. The air was cold enough to make us feel thankful for our fur coats. To-morrow we hope to reach Nnshagak.

August 8, Friday. -- We were roused from a sound sleep by our men at 5 a. m., as we had to take advantage of the inflowing tide to reach Nushagak. The morning was close, warm, and misty. On leaving our tent, we were beset by such swarms of sand-flies as made it difficult for us to pack our boats and prepare breakfast, for one hand at least had to be continually employed in keeping these stinging insects from our faces and necks. We therefore made haste to launch as quickly as possible. As we proceeded, the mist rose, and was followed by a gentle rain, which did not, however, last long. At the mouth of the river we fell in with a large flock of young geese, of which twenty-four were captured. Favored again with magnificent weather, we proceeded straight across the bay towards Nnshagak. Our men were kept hard at work from 10 a. m. to 6 p. m., when Nnshagak was at length safely reached. We were met here and welcomed by Mr. Clarke and others, our boats were drawn ashore, and our goods placed by the natives in the company's store. We had supper at Mr. Clarke's, who also gave us accommodation for the night. The Lord be praised for thus bringing us back again to this place in safety and in health.



Petition for a school.

Sitka, December 18, 1867.

Hon. W. S. Dodge,
Mayor of the city of Sitka :

The undersigned voters in said city hereby request that you will call a meeting of the legal voters therein, as prescribed by section lf> of city charter, in order to give the council power to establish such a system of public schools as it may see fit and proper to adopt.

[Signed by 49, two of whom made their + mark.]

Purchase of school building.

At a special meeting of the common council, October 27, 1868, among the proposed actions for the council was the purchase of a suitable building for the use of the city, as a public school, and to which was added the proposition of the Masonic lodge about to be organized here to advance one-half the purchase money, and, as a consideration, take a lease of one-half of the building for the term of ninety-nine years.

This having been discussed and favored by the council. Judge Storer introduced resolution No. 87, which was adopted.

Be it resolved by the council, That the mayor be, and hereby is, empowered to purchase for the use of the city, from the Russian-American Company, the building opposite the club house, No-56 in the map and inventories attached to the protocol of the treaty of transfer.



Portion of school building leased to a Masonic lodge.

Regular Meeting of City Council, November 13, 1808. At the request of Mr. Storer, the mayor submitted his action with regard to the purchase of a building for city purposes.

The deed for the same (No. 56) was read and approved, and ordered placed among the archives of said city. The deed is considered as a voucher for the payment of the consideration money, $300.

W. S. DODGE, Mayor.

The back rooms on lower floor and attic were leased for ninety-nine years to Alaska Lodge, F. and A. M., in consideration of $150.

October 27, 1868.

School trustees.

Regular Meeting of Common Council, January 21, 1869.

Mr. Parker introduced resolution 113, which was passed.

Resolution 113. -- Whereas the mayor has informed the common council that the city is about to come into possession of the building No. 56, which building was purchased for school purposes in December last: Now, therefore,

(1) Be it resolved, That under and by virtue of Article V of the amendments to the city charter, the council do appoint a board of trustees, consisting of two lawful citizens and freeholders, whose duty it shall be to make all necessary provisions pertaining to the fitting up of the said building and the speedy establishment of a public school.

(2) Be it resolved, That said board of trustees shall make due report to the council of all things necessary for the successful maintenance of said school, and to make such recommendations in all things pertaining to the same as they may deem proper for the consideration and action of the council.

(3) Be it resolved, That the mayor be ex-officio president of the said board of trustees, and shall preside at the meetings of said board, and shall have kept in a proper book a record of its transactions.


W. S. DODGE, Mayor.

School trustees appointed.

At the same meeting (January 21, 1869) Mr. Parker also introduced resolution No. 114.

Be it resolved, That Aaron Le^y and Patrick Burns be, and are hereby, appointed a board of trustees by the council for the public school about to be established in this city.



Appointment of trustees revoked.

Regular Meeting, March 16, 1869.

S. C. Parker introduced resolution No. 115, which passed.

Whereas, The public building in. the city of Sitka known as the public school-house is finished, and further need of trustees being deemed unnecessary: Therefore,

Be it resolved in council assembled, That re-solution No. 114, appointing A. Levy and P. Burns trustees of public schools, is hereby repealed.

At the same meeting Mr. Storer introduced resolution 117.

Resolved, That the acting mayor be, and hereby is, empowered to confer with Colonel Dennison relative to the organization and management of the public school.

Joint military and civil control of public school.

Special Meeting, March 20, 1869.

Council met at 7 p. m., pursuant to a call issued by the acting mayor, for the purpose of taking into consideration the best method of managing the affairs of the public school in conjunction with the "post council of administration."

On motion of Mr. Storer resolution No. 119 was carried unanimously:

Resolved, That C. B. Montague, Aaron Levy, and Patrick Burns be chosen trustees of the public school on behalf of the city for the ensuing year.

Previous to the passage of this resolution the council adopted ordinance No. 30.

School trustees and their duties.

[Ordinance No. 36.]

Be it ordained by the city council of the city of Sitka :

Sec. 1. That a hoard of three trustees shall be chosen by the city council annually, in the month of March, for the purpose of managing the affairs of the public school in the manner hereinafter prescribed.

Sec. 2. Said trustees shall, together with such others as may be joined with them by the post council of administration, select a competent teacher for said school; fix the compensation of said teacher; adopt such text books as they may see it to prescribe; regulate the laws of instruction; provide fuel and other necessary articles for the use of the school, and have a general supervision of the care of the school-house.

Sec. 3. Said trustees shall, before making any expenditure of money for the school, communicate to the city council in writing the amount needed by them, and the purposes for which such money may be required. They shall not incur any liabilities or make any expenditures until the same are approved by the city council.

Sec. 4. The trustees shall make to the city council semi-annual reports of the condition of the school, together with an account of the receipts and expenditures therefor.

Sec. 5. The trustees chosen by the city council shall confer with the post council of administration in all matters connected with the school.

Sec. 6. The trustees chosen by the city council shall hold office from the 1st of April one year to the 1st of April of another : Provided, however, That the first board elected under this ordinance shall serve from the time of their election until the 1st of April, 1870.

Sec. 7. This ordinance shall take effect from and after Its passage.

Acting Mayor.

Sitka Common Council, April 21, 1869.

The mayor read the minutes of the meeting of the board of school trustees of April 8, 1869.

Mr. Storer moved that the mayor be empowered to have the water-closet of the public school inclosed.

Mr. Blake introduced resolution 130. Passed.

Resolved, That the city purchase for the use of the district school, in the city of Sitka, one globe, f6.50 ; one set Wilson's charts, $20 ; one set Cornell's outline maps, with key, $20; total, $46, less 20 per cent.

Bill for school supplies.

Common Council, July 6, 1869.

Mr. Storer presented bill for $17.88. Articles purchased for the city school room. Same was ordered paid.

Regular Meeting, September 7, 1869.

[Resolution No. 168.]

Resolved, That the mayor be requested to confer with the post commander in relation to the public school, especially as to whether or not the post council of administration intends to continue its contributions to the support of said school.



Special Meeting, September 15, 1869.

[Resolution No. 171.]

Resolved, That the mayor be, and is hereby, authorized to settle the bill of H. H. Bancroft & Co., for school books and other articles purchased. by H. T. Bingham, en March 4, 1869.


W. S. DODGE, Mayor.

Regular Meeting, October 5, 1869.

Mr. Montague introduced resolution 174.

Resolved, That from and after the 1st day of October, 1869, the salary of the teacher in the public school, in the city of Sitka, shall be $75 in coin per month.


Regular Meeting, October 19, 1869.

Mr. Kinkead introduced resolution 180.

That the bill of P. B. Ryan, for janitor and washing the public school room, amounting to $4, and the bill of P. Burns, for a like purpose, amounting to !5i2, be allowed, and the mayor authorized to draw his warrant upon the treasurer for the same.

Special Meeting, December 28, 1869.
Councilman Montague, chairman of the board of school trustees, submitted report of board in relation to the present public school teacher. Miss Mercer, appointing her as such for a term of 4 months, from the let day of January, 1870, at a salary of $75, coin, per mouth. Report accepted and approved, and ordered to be placed on file.

Regular Meeting, March 8, 1870.
[Resolution No. 26.]
Resolved, That the bill of H. Spanier, amounting to $3, for one chair for city schoolroom, be accepted and ordered paid.

Regular Meeting, April 5, 1870.
Councilman Montague submitted and read to council report of the board of school trustees for the year ending March 31, 1870. Same accepted and ordered placed on file.

Council proceeded to ballot for school trustees for the ensuing year, resulting in choice of ttie former trustees, Messrs. C. B. Montague, Aaron Levy, and Patrick Burns.

Special Meeting, April 23, 1870.
Mayor Storer stated object of the meeting being to hear the report of the board of school trustees. Councilman Montague, chairman of the board, read a report of the same. Miss Addie Mercer, the present teacher, was further engaged until the arrival of the steamer Newbern, after which the services of Mrs. C. B. Moutague were engaged to fulfill the unexpired term of the present incumbent. Report accepted and ordered to be placed on file.

Regular Meeting, July 5, 1870.
Councilman Burgman introduced resolution 58.

Resolved, That the sum of $5.50 be paid to C. B. Montague for items paid for the city school, and that an order be given on the city treasurer to pay the same.

Regular Meeting, September 20, 1870.
The mayor read a communication from Mr. P. Burns, school trustee, protesting against the action of Mr. A. Levy in appointing Mrs. Murphy teacher of the public schools. Said protest received and placed on file.

Mr. Kinkead offered resolution 59.
Resolved, That the council proceed to the election of one school trustee in place of C. B. Montague, he having removed from town. Election resulted in the selection of Mr. John A. Fuller.

Mr. Fuller offered resolution 62.
Resolved, That the bill of Kinkead & Co. for $7 for purchase of curtains, &c., for the city be paid, and the mayor is hereby authorized to draw his warrant for the same.

Mr. Fuller offered resolution 63.
Resolved, That bill of A. Levy for |;9 for erecting a swing for the benefit of the school children be paid, and the mayor is hereby authorized to draw his warrant for the same.

Special Meeting, February 23, 1871.
Mr. Fuller presented ordinance No. 52.

Be it ordained by the mayor and common council of the city of Sitka, That the salary of the city school teacher shall be $25 per month from and after March 1, 1871.

On motion of Mr. Kinkead, the clerk was ordered to inform the school trustees of the reduction in the teacher's pay, and to post the ordinances adopted at this meeting in conspicuous places for the information of the citizens.

Special Meeting. August 12, 1871.
Mr. Kinkead offered resolution granting permission to the Russian bishop to teach the Russian language one hour each day in the public school. Adopted.
[Resolution No. 96.]
Resolved, That the use of the city school-house be, and hereby is, tendered to the Russian subjects for such hours and at such time as will not contuct with the city school.

Regular Meeting, June20, 1871.
C. Myer, service in school-house, $3.

Regular Meeting, January 16, 1872.
A communication from Mr. A. H. Allen, master of the city school, asking for an increase of his salary from if 25 to |40 was presented, when, Mr. Corcoran presented resolution 105, increasing the school teacher's salary to $35 per mouth from and after this 16th day of January, which, on motion, was adopted.

On motion of Mr. Burns, Messrs. Corcoran, McKnight; and Lieutenant Mitchell were appointed a board of school trustees for the ensuing year.

WM. H. WOOD, Mayor.

Hall of City Council, January 28, l873.
A communication from George R. McKnight, esq., tendering his resignation as a member of the board of trustees of the Sitka public school, was read, and on motion his resignation was accepted ; whereupon Henry E. Cutter was elected to fill the vacancy. On motion Maj. J. Stewart was elected to till a vacancy in said board of trustees, occasioned by the departure of Lieutenant Mitchell.

Hall of City Council, February 4, 1873.
A communication from Maj. J. Stewart, thanking the council for the compliment paid him in electing him a member of the board of school trustees

P. Burns's bill for wood furnished public school at sundry times, amount $2, was ordered paid.


In the district court of the United States for the district of Alaska.

At a term thereof begun and held at Sitka (May term) on the 5th day of October, 1885.

Present, the honorable Edward J. Dawne, judge. The following order was made and entered of record, to wit :

In the United States district court for the district of Alaska.

The United States )
             v.               On indictment for obstructing public roads.
Sheldon Jackson. )

On indictments Nos. 19, 20, and 21.

In tjiese causes the indictments are set aside and defendant's bail exonerated upon motion of the United States district attorney, made for the reason that the indictments are neither of them indorsed " A true bill " and such indorsement signed by the foreman of the grand jury, as required by sec. 6, ch. vu, page 348, and applied by sec. 115, ch. X, page 3.55, criminal code of Oregon, upon sec. 715, ch. x, page 445, of which said indictments are founded, and which omission has been held by the court as sufficient ground for dismissal in case No. 18.

And the district attorney asks to have it spread upon the record that he will not, of his own motion, nor, unless required to act upon the complaint of some party who shall feel aggrieved by the alleged obstruction, take further action in the premises, for the reasons :

(1) That the code of Oregon, sec. 5, ch. i, page 461, provides, in express terms, that offenses defined in section 715 (under which theseindictments are found) shall be subject to the jurisdiction of justices of the peace, whoso authority is conferred on United States commissioners in this district under section 5 of the organic act.

(2) That the known and well-defined facts which constitute the alleged offense are not such as, in his opinion, would warrant a conviction by a trial jury, the obstruction in one case being purely technical and not supported by reason for its application, and ill the others an alteration having been made which comes within the spirit of the Oregon law (its letter not being capable of being applied for want of county court machinery), in that it not only does not " materially increase the distance, to the injury of the public," but in fact is in all respects "equal to the old for the convenience of travelers," and will be, when completed, superior.

Which request is granted.

District Judge.

The United States of America,

District of Alaska, ss :

I, A. T. Lewis, clerk of the United States district court for the district of Alaska, do hereby certify that the foregoing copy of an order of court, made on the 5th day of October, 1S85, of the May term, Hon. Edward J. Dawne, judge, has been by me compared with the original, and that it is a correct transcript therefrom and of the whole of such original, as the same appears of record on the journal at my office and in my custody.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and affixed the seal of said court, at Sitka, in said district, this 5th day of October, 1885.






On the 11th day of March, 1885, I arrived at Sitka, Alaska, and at once assumed charge of the Indian school as its superintendent.

The steamer on which I traveled from Portland, Oreg., to Sitka had among its passengers an Indian woman who took passage at Victoria, B. C. From all that I observed while on board the steamer, together with what I gathered from conversation – with others on the route, I had every reason to believe the woman to be of very doubtful character. This woman claimed to be a cousin of one of the young girls in the training school, and soon after her arrival at Sitka she had issued a writ of habeas corpus for the person of the young girl in question. The girl was taken before Hon. Ward McAllister, United States district judge. As soon as I heard of the proceeding I hastened to the court. This was about 11 o'clock p. m. When I arrived in the courtroom the evidence for the plaintiff was almost all heard. When I succeeded in gaining the attention of the court I stated that I was now superintendent of the school and desired to be heard, adding that from what I had seen and heard while on board the steamer I did not regard the woman as a lit person to whom to confide a young girl.

The court refused to hear me further, and peremptorily decided that the woman could take the girl, which she did accordingly, and left on the steamer early on the following morning. Neither time nor opportunity was given me to secure counsel or make a defense. Subsequent events did not change my opinion of the character or purpose of the woman.

The effect of the rulings of the court in this and a subsequent case was to cause almost one half of the children to run away from the school, and to prejudice the natives against placing other children in the institution. The fate of many of the larger girls who ran away may be inferred. A letter just received from one of the employees of the school states:

" One of the Home girls who ran away last summer came up to the house sobbing as if her heart would break, and begged us to take her back again. She had lived a very wicked life since leaving the Home, so with aching hearts we were compelled to refuse her."

I have many reasons to believe that some of the civil officers at that time in the Territory were inimical to the school and were responsible for much harm done.

My connection with the school made me cognizant of much that Hon. Sheldon Jackson did while he had charge of the institution, and while I was in the Territory I failed to see any disregard on his part of the lawful rights of parents and citizens. His zeal, energy, and thorough devotion to the work are to be commended. He was abused and persecuted by those who should have seconded his efforts, and many acts were resorted to in order to hinder his plans.

I deem it due to Dr. Jackson that the above facts should be known, and that he should be permitted to complete the work he has begun and continued with so much efficiency and personal sacrifice.


State of Pennsylvania, County of Dauphin, ss :

On the 6th day of February, A. D. 1886, personally appeared before me, a notary public, residing in the said city,* A. J. Davis, who, having been duly affirmed according to law, deposeth that the facts set forth in the foregoing statement are correct to the best of his knowledge and belief.


Affirmed and subscribed before me the day and year aforesaid.


Notary Public.



Annual report of training school at Sitka, Alaska, for 1884-'85.

Sitka, Alaska, July 1, 1885.

Sir: I have the honor to send you the following annual report of the Indian industrial and training school, Sitka, Alaska, for the year ending June 30, 1885:

As this is the first report to your office from this school, a brief preliminary statement is in order.

In the spring of 1876 nine Tsimpsheau Indians came up the coast from Port Simpson, British Columbia, and took a contract for cutting wood for the military post then at Fort Wrangell, Alaska.

At the close of their contract, in the fall, as they were about returning to Port Simpson, Clah, who had beeu the leader among those Indians, was persuaded to remain and open a school. Such was the anxiety of the people to learn that his school was attended by 60 to 70 adults, besides children. ''These people," said a sailor, " are crazy to learn. Going up the beach last night I overheard an Indian girl spelling words of one and two syllables. Upon looking into the house, I found that, unable to procure a school-book, she was learning from a scrap of newspaper that she had picked up."

Touched by the eagerness of this people to learn, a soldier at the post wrote to Major-General Howard, then in command of that military district, asking if some society could not be interested to send them a competent teacher. The letter was placed in my hands in May, 1877, and immediately published in the Chicago Tribune. To gain a better understanding of this movement of the natives for a school, I made them a visit in August, 1877. In passing through Portland I found a teacher who had had large experience in mission work and Indian schools -- Mrs. A. R. McFarland -- whom I took with me.

Going ashore upon our arrival, August 10, I heard the ringing of the bell for the afternoon school, and went directly to the school house. About twenty pupils were in attendance, mostly young Indian women. Two or three boys were present; also a mother and her three little children. As the women took their seats on the rough plank benches each one bowed her head in silent prayer, seeking divine help in her studies. Soon a thoughtful Indian man of about twenty-five years of age came in and took his seat behind the rude desk. The familiar hymn "What a friend we have in Jesus" was sung in English; a prayer followed in the Chinook jargon, which is the common language of the various tribes on this coast, closing with the repetition, in concert, of the Lord's Prayer in English. After lessons were studied and recited, the school arose, sung the long-meter doxology, and recited in concert the benediction. Then the teacher said, "Good afternoon, my pupils," to which came the kindly response, " Good afternoon, teacher."

The school was in full operation, but under great difficulties. They greatly needed maps and charts ; they were also in great need of a school-house. At the time of my visit they were renting a dance-hall for a school-room. Upon the return of the miners for the winter the hall had to be given up, and the school was held in a dilapidated log house. I found their stock of books inventoried as follows: four small Bibles, four hymn books, three primers, thirteen first readers, and one wall chart.

* Harrisburg.

Mrs. McFarland was at once placed in charge of the school, with Clah as an assistant, and Mrs. Sarah Dickinson, a Christian Tongass Indian, as interpreter. Early in the history of her school Mrs. McFarland found a difficulty in holding her girl pupils. According to the customs of their people, they were frequently hired or sold by their own mothers to white men and others for base purposes. And the brighter the girl the greater her danger; for, as she improved in the school, she began to dress more neatly, comb her hair, and keep her person more cleanly; the dull, stolid cast of countenance gave way to the light of intelligence, and she began to be more attractive, and consequently in greater demand. To save these girls necessitated the establishment of a "home " into which they could be gathered, and thus taken out from Tinder the control of their mothers. Consequently a home was added to the school in October, 1878, and kept in what was formerly the hospital building of the military post.

In July, 1879, I made a second trip to Alaska, taking with me Miss Maggie J. Dunbar, of Steubenville, Ohio, as teacher. Relieved from the care of the school-room, Mrs. McFarland was able to give her whole time to the boarding and industrial departments.

During that season I commenced the erection of a large two-story building, with basement and attic, 40 by 60 feet, for the use of the home and school, which was completed the following season at an expense of $7,600.

In March, 1882, the school was divided. Rev. John W. McFarland taking the boys' and Miss Dunbar the girls' department. In September, 1882, Miss Kate A. Rankin was placed in charge of the industrial department.

On the 9th of February, 1683, the school buildings were burned to the ground, and the school again found shelter in the old military hospital.

In the summer of l884 the school teachers and pupils were removed to Sitka.

In the winter of 1877-78 I secured the appointment of Rev. John G. Brady for Sitka, and in April, 1878, a .school was opened by Mr. Brady and Miss Fannie E. Kellogg. In December, through a combination of circumstances, it was discontinued. In the spring of 1880 Miss Olinda Austin was sent out from New York City, and reopened the school April 5, in one of the rooms of the guard-house, with 103 children present. This number increased to 130. Then some of the parents applied for admission, but could not be received, as the room would not hold any more. Miss Austin received the support and substantial assistance of Captain Beardslee, then in command of the United States ship Jamestown. Lieutenant Simonds, and other naval officers, who proved themselves warm friends of the enterprise. In July the school was moved to the old hospital building.

In November some of the boys applied to the teacher for permission to live at the school-house. At home there was so much drinking, talking, and carousing that they could not study. The teacher said she had no accommodations, bedding, or food for them. But they were so much in earnest that they said they would provide for themselves. Upon receiving permission, seven Indian boys, thirteen and fourteen years of age, bringing a blanket each and a piece of tin for a looking-glass, voluntarily left their homes and took up their abode in a vacant room of one of the Government buildings. Thus commenced the boarding department of the Sitka school. Soon other boys joined them. One was a boy who had been taken out to be shot as a witch, but was rescued by the officers of the Jamestown and placed in the school. Capt. Henry Glass, who succeeded Captain Beardslee in command of the Jamestown, from the first, with his officers, took a deep interest in the school. As he has had opportunity he secured boys from distant tribes and placed them in the school.

In February, 1881. Captain Glass established a rule compelling the attendance of the Indian children upon the day school, which was a move in the right direction and has worked admirably. He first caused the Indian village to be cleaned up, ditches dug around each house for drainage, and the houses whitewashed. These sanitary regulations greatly lessened the sickness and death-rate among them. He then caused the houses to be numbered, and an accurate census taken of the inmates -- adults and children. He then caused a label to be made of tin for each child, which was tied around the neck of the child, with his or her number and the number of the house on it, so that if a child was found on the street during school hours the Indian policeman was under orders to take the numbers on the labels and report them, or the teacher each day would report that such numbers from such houses were absent that day. The following morning the head Indian of the house to which the absentee belonged was summoned to appear and answer for the absence of the child. If the child was willfully absent, the head man was fined or imprisoned. A few cases of fine were sufficient. As soon as they found the captain in earnest, the children were all in school.

In April Mr. Alonzo E. Austin was appointed principal of the school and Mrs. Austin was appointed matron.

On the 24th of January, 1882, the old Russian log hospital building that sheltered the school was burned, and the pupils were placed in an abandoned Government stable, which was roughly fitted up for them.

UI the 8uu]uitr of that year, by the advice of the naval commander, the collector of customs, and a few of the leading citizens, I selected a tract of land outside the village as a permanent location for the school, and erected "Austin Hall," a large, two-story building, 100 by 50 feet in size. Mr. Walter B. Styles was placed in charge of the industrial department.


During the fall and winter of l884 the following buildings were erected : Central Hall, a two-story frame building, 130 by 50 feet in size; this building contains school rooms, dining hall and kitchens both for school and teachers' mess, sewing rooms, girls' dormitory, teachers' rooms, &c.; it was occupied January 1, l885. A laundry, one and one- half story, 20 by 25 h et ; a bakery, one and one-half story, 14 by 25 feet ; and a wagon-shed, 3u by 10 feet.

Iron pipes have been laid for half a mile from the buildings to Indian River, furnishing the institution with an abundant supply of pure soft water.


Sheldon Jackson (July, 1884, to March, 1885), superintendent.

A. J. Davis (March to June), superintendent.

"William A. Kelly (June), superintendent.

Rev. Alonzo E. Austin, assistant superintendent and chaplain.

John Walker (Indian, July to March), industrial teacher.

Thomas Heaton (March to June), industrial teacher.

Mrs. A. E. Austin, matron boys' department.

Mrs. A. E. McFarland, matron girls' department.

Miss Kate A. Rankin, sewing department.

Miss Margaret Dauphin, laundry and kitchen.

Miss R. A. Kelsey, school-room.

W. D. McLeod, machinist.

M. Cragin, watchman and assistant.

David Jackson (native), boot and shoe department.

Sergeant Myers, U. S. N., volunteer drill master.

There have been in connection with the school during the year 47 boys and 90 girls, making a total attendance of 137.

The average age of the boys has been 14 years and of the girls 10-1/2.

There have been one marriage and three deaths. One of the girls married the interpreter of the Takoo Mission. A boy and a girl have died of consumption and a girl of pneumonia. This was the first death in the boys' department during the five years' history of the school.

The several tribes are represented as follows :


Boys. Girls. Total.
Kokwatons, of Stika 22 12 34
Kaksahtea, of Sitka 16 10 26
Hoochinoo 3 10 13
Kake 1 1 2
Hoonah 4 3 7
Yakatat ---- 3 3
Stickine ---- 30 30
Chilkat 1 6 7
Takoo ---- 5 5
Hanega ---- 3 3
Tongass ---- 1 1
Stick ---- 3 3
Hydah ---- 1 1
Creole ---- 2 2
                           Total 47 90 137

On account of causes hereafter mentioned the school closes the year with only 26 boys and 33 girls. Total present attendance, .5it. All the pupils are required to be in the school-room half the day and the work-rooms the other half.

In the school-rooms they pursue the studies usual to the primary and intermediate grades, and are making fair progress when it is considered that their studies are in, to them, a foreign language. An analogous position would be to attempt to instruct the children of New York or Massachusetts in arithmetic, geography, grammar, &c., through the medium of Chinese teachers and text-books. Without any legal power on the part of the teachers or public sentiment among the parents, to hold the children, and with the direct or indirect opposition of several of the Government officials, it has been very difficult to exercise the authority necessary to secure the best results in speaking English.


All the manual labor of the institution is performed by the children themselves under the supervision and instruction of the teachers. There is not a hired servant about the establishment. The older and more advanced girls in charge of the divisions and of the teachers' kitchen are paid a small compensation ; also the older boys in the carpenter shop.


The girls are divided into three classes and serve in rotation in each of the three divisions.

(1) Kitchen and dining department. -- Much of the time and strength of this department is taken up in the necessary work of providing the daily meals. More and more attention will, however, be given to training the pupils in the best method of cooking meats, fish, and vegetables, the preparation of corned, smoked, and pickled meats and fish; the drying and preserving of berries ; the care of winter vegetables ; making yeast and baking bread; the care of milk; butter and cheese making; the proper washing of dishes and care of kitchen utensils, and the care of store-room and pantry ; also the setting, waiting upon, and clearing off of tables ; the care of knives, forks, spoons, &c.

(2) The dormitory and sewing department. -- In the dormitory, halls, &c., the girls attend to the sweeping and scrubbing of doors, dusting, and orderly arrangement of furniture; making of beds; care of slops; simple adornment of walls; cleaning and care of lamps: care of clothes, closets, bedding, &c. As they have nothing of this in their native homes it is a long step forward in their civilization. In the sewing department they are taught the usual cutting and making of clothes; the changing, mending, and patching of garments ; knitting and darning ; practice with the sewing machine, &c. They are fond of and excel in sewing and knitting, and it is doubtful whether any equal number of white girls gathered promiscuously into a school would do as well.

(3) The laundry department. -- In addition to the usual weekly washing and ironing of the clothes, bedding, &c., of the pupils, special instruction will be given in the manufacture of lye from wood ashes, of soft-soap and starch.


The boys in a general way are divided into two classes for work. The smaller ones cut and carry in the fire-wood, keep the grounds cleaned up, and do the chores generally. The larger ones cut and raft the logs for fire-wood, draw the seine when fishing, and work in the carpenter-shop. Much of the work of the past year, of extracting stumps, grading and ditching land, rafting logs and lumber, procuring and carrying rock for foundations and lumber for the buildings from the beach (there are no horses or oxen here) has been done by the boys of the school. They also did much of the work of erecting the main central building of the institution -- a house two and a half stories high, 130 feet long, and 50 feet wide. This was done under the supervision of the head or "boss" carpenter, John Walker, himself a full-blooded Indian, educated at the Forest Grove Indian School.

Having no roads or appliances for getting logs out of the woods, the custom of the country is to find a suitable tree so near the ocean shore that, when cut, it will fall into the water. The logs are lashed together, and when the tide is in the right direction floated to their destination. The available trees near to Sitka having been cut off, the schoolboys are compelled to go from 8 to 12 miles away for their annual supply of fire-wood. This adds greatly to the fatigue and danger of the work. Our boats have been driven ashore, and occasionally a raft scattered by a storm, but so far no lives have been lost, and the boys have gained practice in seamanship.

FISHERIES, ETC. A seine has been provided and the boys have packed thirty-four barrels of choice salmon for the use of the school. As fish is one of the chief commercial commodities of the country, and one which will furnish the natives with au ample and reliable means of support, special attention will be given to it. The boys will he instructed in the names, habits, and commercial value of the various kinds of fish in their waters; improved methods of taking and preparing them for market ; the making and mending of nets; the management and repair of boats; rope-splicing and sail-making; swimming ; naval drill ; together with instruction concerning the tides and the use of the compass.


The erection of buildings for the institution during the past year has given a special impetus to wood work. The native races on this coast are noted for their skill in the manufacture of canoes, and carving in wood, stone, and metals, so that the boys very readily and quickly become skillful in the use of tools. As an encouragement to the boys, the school has very properly been given the contract of making the school furniture for all the GoAernment schools in Alaska. During the coming year some attention will be given to the manufacture of household furniture. It is also hoped that a cooper-shop may be opened to provide barrels and casks for the salting of fish.


An injunction having been served on the officers of the school, through the malice of United States District Attorney Haskett and Judge McAllister, preventing work on the school property at the time the vegetable garden should have been planted, but little has been raised this season. In previous seasons the school garden has been the most flourishing one in the place. Since the dissolving of the injunction by the court, considerable has been done in removing stumps, and grading and ditching land. It would be well if the Government would set apart a special sum for carrying on, in connection with the school, of an [sic]


There is a wide diversity of views concerning the agricultural and horticultural capabilities of this region, and necessarily great ignorance. The early Russian settlers were here for furs, and the more recent Americans for trading and mining. No systematic effort intelligently prosecuted has been made to ascertain what can or cannot be raised to advantage. The industrial and training school of this distant and but little known section of the United States furnishes a basis for a department that shall make careful experiments extending over a term of years to ascertain the vegetables, grains, grasses, berries, and small fruits, apples and larger fruits, trees, flowers, &c., best adapted to the country; the best methods of cultivating, gathering, and curing the same; tree planting, and grafting of fruit trees; the development of the wild cranberry; cattle, hog, and poultry raising; and butter and cheese making. If the Government will determine what can be done in this direction, both settlers and the natives will utilize the information gained. Such a course will add both to the wealth of the country and the comfort of the people.


No systematic training has yet been given in this important department, although considerable has been done in theway of repairing shoes. More and more prominence will be given this department as the work develops.


As the work of the school becomes more systematized, special instruction will be given both sexes in physiology, the laws of health, common sanitary regulations, simple remedies, treatment of accidents (particularly cuts and gunshot wounds), treatment of persons rescued from drowning; cooking for, waiting upon, and nursing the sick.


The native races upon this coast are a docile people and easily influenced by those in authority.

While the country was under naval rule Captains Glass, Beardslee, Lull, and others gave their influence in favor of the school, and the school room was crowded with pupils.

In the fall of 1884 the naval rule was superseded by that of the civil government.

As the securing of the civil government was largely due to the friends of the school (Report of Commissioner of Education for 1882-'83'), they had a right to expect the friendly co-operation of the new officials. Further, the native races compose fifteen-sixteenths of the ])opulation to be cared for, and have a claim upon the attention of the officers. Still further, Congress had voted an appropriation for the education of these ])eople, and the most important services the officer's could render the Government and the country was to throw their whole official influence in favor of the education of the native races up to American citizenship. Had they done this -- had they followed the example of the naval commanders that had preceded them, and made the natives feel that the officers really desired the regular attendance of the children at school -- all of the native schools would have continued to make progress and produce results satisfactory to the Government.

But, very strangely and unexpectedly Governor Kinkead (the few weeks he spent in Alaska of the year he was governor), United States Judge Ward McAllister, Jr. , United States Marshal Hillyer, and Deputy Marshal Sullivan, directly or indirectly threw their influence against the schools, and the native parents soon learned that the officers did not care whether they sent their children to school or not. The most open opposition, however, came from United States District Attorney E. W. Haskett.

Secretly pushed forward by others, as it is believed, he sought to disturb the school in the occupancy of the land upon which are situated the school buildings and improvements.

Following the precedent made in the organization of the Territory of Oregon, and afterwards that of Washington, Congress in the organic act providing a civil government for Alaska enacted as follows:

And provided also, That the land, not exceeding 640 acres, at any station now occupied as missionary stations among the Indian tribes in said section, with the improvements thereon erected by or for such societies, shall be continued in the occupancy of the several religious societies to which said missionary stations respectively belong until action by Congress.

Mr. Haskett, working upon the race prejudice of the Russian Creoles, made them believe that the Government was giving to the Indians lands that their children would some day need. This resulted in two or three so-called "citizens' meetings," mainly composed of Creoles, at which resolutions were adopted and sent to Washington protesting against the industrial school being allowed the use of the land reserved by Congress for it. At these meetings the United States district attorney was the chief speaker, and in his incendiary harangues assured them that the school had no right to the land where its buildings are, and that if any Russian wanted any of the land claimed by the school all he had to do was to go and occupy it. As a consequence one of the simple-minded Creoles went into the front yard of the school, staked out the corners of a house, and commenced getting out the. foundations. Several others were preparing to do the same thing.

This necessitated the immediate construction of a fence in front of the school grounds. Upon the setting of the posts, Mr. Haskett encouraged the. Creoles to make a complaint that the school was obstructing a public highway, because the fence was not 30 feet from the center of a road used as a public highway, but which has no legal status as such. The fence was the same distance from the road as every other fence on it, and was built in uniformity with them. Through misrepresentations to the court an injunction was secured against all the officers and employees of the school forbidding the completion of the fence, the clearing out of underbrush and grading of the land, construction of walks, or even any work upon the school buildings themselves.

At the May term of court the injunction was dissolved, on a demurrer to the petition, on the ground that the complainants were not adjoining property holders and had no legal right to complain.

The same result would have been reached if the case had been tried on its merits, as all the allegations in the complaint were untrue.

Upon the acquisition of Alaska in 1867, a company of United States troops was stationed at Sitka. In procuring their fuel they first cut the trees accessible from the beach. When those nearest to the beach were gone, they naturally cut those adjoining, all the time penetrating farther into the woods, and farther from the beach. After the first rise of ground at the beach the land is swampy, and in order to get out the firewood the troops made a temporary corduroy road. The farther they penetrated the forest for wood the longer the road grew, until, when the troops were withdrawn in 1877, it was nearly half a mile long. After the departure of the soldiers the road was practically abandoned. It commences on the beach and abruptly terminates in the woods. Its commencement, ending, and whole course is on the land reserved by Congress for the school.

' See Appendix A.

In order to inclose the school buildings and secure better discipline, the superintendent of the schools needed to fence across this former wood road. This he had a legal right to do, but he refrained from doing so until the school constructed a better road at the side of the school grounds to take the place of the former wood road through them. The new road is better and more convenient to the village than the old one, and when extended will make a straight street from the beach to the cemetery. (See the record of the court on the change of roads, page 79.) The cemetery has no road to it, but is reached by a trail through a swamp from the wood road.

Any other community would cordially acquiesce in this change, better both for the school and the general public, but here, througli the feeling created by District Attorney Haskett, the change is met with the threat of mob violence.

The culmination of these difficulties occurred in March last.

Upon the 11th of March the United States monthly mail steamer arrived, bringing an Indian woman of questionable character, who claimed possession of one of the girls in the school. The girl is a half-breed, about twelve to fourteen years of age, and an orphan. She is a good English scholar and quite attractive in her personal appearance. The woman claimed to be a relative (I believe a cousin). She had no papers of guardianship or any proof to support her claim; nor was she the guardian of the girl even according to Indian customs. The white father had left his illegitimate child and her mother. The mother died. On her dying bed, as I was informed and believe, she gave the child to Mrs. A. R. McFarland, superintendent of the Girls' School and Home at Fort Wrangell, to bring up in that school. and after the death of the mother the child was taken from her mother's house to Mrs. McFarland's. If any one was entitled to be considered the legal guardian of the child, in a country where, at the time, there was no law applicable to such a case, it was Mrs. McFarland. The officers of the school very properly refused to let the child go. The woman then, at the instigation and with the assistance of some evil-disposed white men, took out a writ of habeas corpus. A special term of court was held at 8 o'clock in the evening. The officers of the school were refused a hearing,* and the girl was given into the custody of the woman.

Last winter an Indian sorcerer and his wife brought their daughter, about twelve years of age, and placed her in the school for live years. A short time afterwards, having an opportunity of selling her to some visiting Indians, they came and asked to lake her out of the school. This was refused by the superintendent. They then offered to send her brother in her place. The superintendent replied that he would take the boy if they wished, but would retain the girl. They then offered him §10 in money if he would let the girl go. Failing to procure her, they hired two Indians to steal her. These men were concealed in the woods near by, a week before they were discovered and captured. While these events were transpiring the first girl had been taken from the school on a writ of habeas corpus. Encouraged by this, the same white men as in the first case assisted the sorcerer in securing a writ, and the girl was produced in court. Upon this occasion the judge ruled --

(1) That the verbal contract of the Indian parents in placing their child in school was not binding.

(2) That as a white man cannot make a contract with au Indian a written contract would be illegal.

(:{) That if the officers of the school attempted to restrain the children from running away or leaving whenever they wished, they would be liable to fine and imprisonment.

Judge Dawne, who succeeded Mr. McAllister as U. S. .judge of Alaska, upon opening his court took an early opportunity of reversing these decisions, and decided that the natives of Southeast Alaska were not Indians; that they could make contracts, sue and be sued, and do whatever any one else could do before the law.

The decisions of Judge McAllister left the officers powerless to maintain discipline. If a child failed in his lessons, (juarreled with his schoolmates, neglected his work, or transgressed the rules of the school, and any attempt was made to correct him, in a fit of anger or sulkiness he could leave the school. The court had thrown the doors wide open, and evil-disposed men took special pains to inform the natives and encourage them to remove their children from the school.

To add to the difficulties of the situation, about that time one of the school girls died of pneumonia. She had careful nursing and every needed attention, even to the medical attendance of the surgeon on the United States man-of-war, the Pinta. After the burial some one started the story that the matron had bewitched the girl and caused her death. Soon there was an excited mob at the school clamoring to take their children home for fear the matron would kill them also. If the civil officers had then used their influence with the Indians to quiet the excitement and keep the children in school, they would have succeeded, and both parents and children would have been thankful after it was all over. On the contrary, the marshal, the interpreter, and especially the United States district attorney, helped the matter along, so that, through their influence and the superstitious fear of the Indians, in a few days forty-seven children were taken out of school and remanded back to the filth, superstition, degradation, and vice of their native condition.

* See testimony of A. J. Davis, Appendix L.

Among those removed from the school was a girl seventeen years of age who had been sold into prostitution by her own mother. In some way she had escaped and found both an asylum and a home in the school, but now she was turned loose to 'destruction.

Another girl, of fifteen, and her sister ten years of age had been picked up on the beach at a mining camp. They were without friends or home, almost without clothing, and in a starving condition. Through neglect and cruel treatment, the younger one was almost blind. These orphan sisters were taken into the school, fed, clothed, and kindly cared for. Medical attendance was provided and the blind one restored to sight. The sisters were making fair progress when the break came and they were taken in charge by an aunt. The elder one was sent into prostitution, and the aunt is living off the wages of the child's shame. The younger one, in a few days, escaped from her relatives and returned to the school. When her aunt came for her she clung to one of the lady teachers and had to be taken away by force. Again she returned to the school and again was torn away. She returned the third time. It seemed so inhuman and outrageous to force the poor child into a life that she was making such desperate efforts to escape that the officers of the school refused to let her relatives have her, preferring that, if she must be taken away, the responsibility should rest upon the court.

Another girl, of fourteen, when about to be sold into prostitution for the benefit of a distant relative, escaped from her grandmother, who was guarding her, and came to the school. As a result of the decision of the court, she, too, was remanded back to the care of her heathen relatives, and has been lost to a virtuous life.

Another, a girl of about seventeen, was being sold into prostitution by her step-mother and aunt. The two women, quarreling over the division of the blood money, came to settle the dispute before Mr. A. T. Lewis, clerk of the court. Mr. Lewis, whose influence is on the side of humanity and the school, took the girl from her unnatural protectors, and placed her in the school. She, too, has gone back to her former abode of cruelty.

Some three years ago, a little girl was accused of witchcraft. The tribe bound her with a rope. A stalwart chief, holding one end of the rope, walked in advance, dragging the child after him, while another came behind holding the other end of the rope. These men were the admiration of the tribe for their bravery in holding between them a puny, starved girl of teu. She was rescued by Professor Austin, who was in charge of the school, and given a home. During the troubles she was returned to the tribe, and may yet be tortured to death as a witch.

Another was the slave of a prominent chief. After his death his two widows treated her so cruelly that she ran away, and was found hid under the church. She was taken into the school and furnished protection and a home. A man that married one of the widows claimed her as his property, and tried to get possession of her, but in vain. But now that the school is powerless to protect the orphan, the escaped slave, and the helpless child, she has gone out from under its care, and her future remains to be seen.

Another, to prevent being married to her stepfather and becoming a plural wife with her own mother, ran away and came to the school. For a long time she did not dare visit her mother, and when at length she ventured to visit home, they locked her up in a room to keep her. After some days she again escaped and returned to the school. Now under the hostile influences that surrounded the school, she has been led away, and is living a life of sin in a mining camp.

And thus also among the boys.

One had been sold as a slave twice before he was brought to the school. Another had been shot as a slave and a bullet sent crushing through his shoulder. Another had been tied up as a witch and kept four days without food, when he was rescued. Another when born was about to be killed by his parents to save the trouble of taking care of him. A neighboring woman took pity on the babe and removed him to her own house. When the school commenced he was placed in it. Many others had come under the protection of the school through trials and dangers. They were making good progress in books and industrial pursuits, and advancing in the ways of civilization. The older ones were looking forward to the erection of American homes for themselves, when the break came and the work was greatly set back.

Thus an institution, established at great expense, supported in part by an annual appropriation of Congress and equipped to do a good work, is crippled, and the purpose of the Government to civilize the natives is hindered by the opposition of the officers previously named.

For seven years earnest men and women, exiled from friends and society in this far-off land, amid many hardships and privations, have toiled to overcome the prejudices of the natives and secure their children, that by means of an industrial education they may be lifted out of the degradation of their fathers into respectable citizenship. And now to see it possible for United States officials and others in one month to take forty-seven children out of an industrial school strongly emphasizes the need of such legislation by Congress that schools supported in whole or in part by the Government shall be protected from the malice of evil-disposed white men on the one hand, and the whims of degraded ignorant parents on the other.

There is a great and growing work to be done by this institution, but in order to secure the best results it is necessary to have some law by which the children can be legally held for a sufficient number of years to form civilized habits of thought, work, and life.

Trusting that your office will prepare and present to Congress the needed legislation, I remain, with great respect, yours truly,

United States General Agent of Education in Alaska.
The Commissioner of Indian Affairs.





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